The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, an insect of the order Hemiptera which attacks more than 600 species of plants, is one of the most important agricultural pests around the world. The insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful biological pesticides, and some are toxic to Hemipteran insects. In this study, Colombian native isolates of Bt were functionally characterized at molecular and biological levels. The strains contained between one and five different crystal shapes: round, triangular, amorphous, bipyramidal and squared. The strains presented between three to seven bands of proteins in their electrophoretic pattern that were organized into six groups according to their possible biological activity on insect pests. Cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry1C genes were identified for PCR in the different Bt isolates. Bioassays were performed on tomato leaves whose surface was spread with 3 μg · ml−1 crude extract of Bt toxins. Second instar larvae of whitefly, which were placed on top of leaves and exposed to the toxins for 7 days, exhibited mortalities from 18 to 69%. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of ZBUJTL39, Bt kurstaki HD1 and ZCUJTL9 strains were 1.83, 1.85 and 2.16 μg · ml−1, respectively (p < 0.05). These results show that the native Bt strain ZBUJTL39, which contained the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cryCa and cryBa could eventually be used for the development of an integrated management program together with other tools for the control of B. tabaci.
Characterization of sound absorbing materials is essential to predict its acoustic behaviour. The most commonly used models to do so consider the flow resistivity, porosity, and average fibre diameter as parameters to determine the acoustic impedance and sound absorbing coefficient. Besides direct experimental techniques, numerical approaches appear to be an alternative to estimate the material's parameters. In this work an inverse numerical method to obtain some parameters of a fibrous material is presented. Using measurements of the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient and then using the model proposed by Voronina, subsequent application of basic minimization techniques allows one to obtain the porosity, average fibre diameter and density of a sound absorbing material. The numerical results agree fairly well with the experimental data.
The proper interaction of bone tissue - the natural porous biomaterial - with a porous coated intra-osseous implant is conditioned, among others, by the implant porous coating poroaccessibility for bone tissue adaptive ingrowth. The poroaccessibility is the ability of implant porous coating outer layer to accommodate the ingrowing bone tissue filling in its pore space and effective new formed bone mineralizing in the pores to form a biomechanically functional bone-implant fixation. The functional features of the microtopography of intra-osseous implant porous surfaces together with the porosity of pore space of the outer layer of the porous coating are called by bioengineers the porostructural-osteoconductive properties of the porous coated implant. The properties are crucial for successful adaptive bone tissue ingrowth and further long-term (secondary) biomechanical stability of the boneimplant interface. The poroaccessibility of intra-osseous implants porous coating outer layers is characterized by - the introduced in our previous papers - set of stereometric parameters of poroaccessibility: the effective volumetric porosity fVef, the index of the porous coating space capacity VPM, the representative surface porosity fSrep, the representative pore size pSrep, the representative angle of the poroaccessibility Wrep and the bone-implant interface adhesive surface enlargement index y. Presented in this paper, an original method of evaluation of the porostructural-osteoconductive properties of intra-osseous implant porous coatings outer layer by means of the parameters of poroaccessibility was preliminary verified during experimental tests performed on the representative examples of porous coated femoral stems and acetabular cups of various hip endoprostheses. The computer-aided stereometric evaluation of the microstructure of implant porous coatings outer layer can be now realized by the authoring application software PoroAccess_1.0 elaborated in our research team in Java programming language
In the paper a method using active thermography and a neural algorithm for material defect characterization is presented. Experimental investigations are conducted with the stepped heating method, so-called time-resolved infrared radiometry, for the test specimen made of a material with low thermal diffusivity. The results of the experimental investigations were used in simulations of artificial neural networks. Simulations are performed for three datasets representing three stages of the heating process occurring in the investigated sample. In this work, the simulation research aimed to determine the accuracy of defect depth estimation with the use of the mentioned algorithm is descibed
It is well known that sound absorption and sound transmission properties of open porous materials are highly dependent on their airflow resistance values. Low values of airflow resistance indicate little resistance for air streaming through the porous material and high values are a sign that most of the pores inside the material are closed. The laboratory procedures for measuring airflow resistance have been stan- dardized by several organizations, including ISO and ASTM for both alternate flow and continuous flow. However, practical implementation of these standardized methods could be both complex and expensive. In this work, two indirect alternative measurement procedures were compared against the alternate flow standardized technique. The techniques were tested using three families of eco-friendly sound absorbent materials: recycled polyurethane foams, coconut natural fibres, and recycled polyester fibres. It is found that the values of airflow resistance measured using both alternative methods are very similar. There is also a good correlation between the values obtained through alternative and standardized methods.
This work reports the results of a study of Mo thin films synthesis by DC Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering method (PMS), operating at pulse main frequency of 100 kHz and modulated by the additional modulation frequency, driving in the range of 5-1000 Hz (modulated Pulse Magnetron Sputtering – mPMS). We have studied the influence of mPMS on plasma chemical reactions and mechanisms of layer growth using optical emission spectroscopy technique. Our experiment showed strong influence of mPMS method, on the morphology (scanning electron microscopy), phase composition (X-ray diffractometry) and electric properties (4-point probes method) of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mo films. From the utilitarian point of view, low value of resistivity – 43,2 μΩcm of synthesized Mo films predestines them as back contacts for thin solar cells CIGS. Our results revealed that additional modulation frequency should be considered as an important factor for optimization of films synthesis by means of PMS-based methods.
The proposed paper discusses the design and characterization of a soft miniature Magneto-Rheological (MR) shock absorber. In particular, the final application considered for the insertion of the designed devices is a controllable variable stiffness sole for patients with foot neuropathy. Such application imposes particularly challenging constraints in terms of miniaturization (cross-sectional area ≤ 1.5 cm2, height ≤ 25 mm) and high sustainable loads (normal loads up to 60 N and shear stresses at the foot/device interface up to 80 kPa) while ensuring moderate to low level of power consumption. Initial design considerations are done to introduce and justify the chosen novel configuration of soft shock absorber embedding a MR valve as the core control element. Successively, the dimensioning of two different MR valves typologies is discussed. In particular, for each configuration two design scenarios are evaluated and consequently two sets of valves satisfying different specifications are manufactured. The obtained prototypes result in miniature modules (external diam. ≤ 15 mm, overall height ≤ 30 mm) with low power consumption (from a minimum of 63 mW to a max. of 110 mW) and able to sustain a load up to 65 N. Finally, experimental sessions are performed to test the behaviour of the realized shock absorbers and results are presented.
In the present investigation, the morphology of Ti inclusions in high strength tire cord steel was investigated and their precipitation behavior was discussed using a precipitation and growth model. The results show that Ti inclusions mainly exist in the form of TiN. The two-dimensional characterization of Ti inclusions is square-like with sharp edges and corners, while its three-dimensional shape exhibits a cubic or rectangular-prism morphology. The Ti inclusions do not precipitate when the solid fraction of tire cord during solidification is less than 0.987, and their final radius is closely related to the cooling rate and initial concentration product. The higher the cooling speed, the smaller the final radius, when the cooling speed is constant, the final radius of Ti inclusions is mainly determined by the initial concentration product, w[N]0×w[Ti]0. In order to retard the precipitation and growth of Ti inclusions in tire cord steel, the cooling rate and initial concentration product can be taken into consideration.
In this paper, the authors investigated the size distribution of titanium oxide (TiO2), titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium carbide (TiC) inclusions in a titanium deoxidized 4130 steel and compared it with the 4130 base alloy composition inclusions. TiN and TiC inclusions are of particular interest due to their role as heterogeneous nuclei for various phase reactions in steels. Two types of samples were prepared, a polished sample and a filtered sample. Electrolytic dissolution was employed to make the filter paper samples. The size range of titanium inclusions was found to be more than that of the non-metallic inclusions from 4130 base alloy heat. Titanium inclusions from the filter and polished samples were round in shape. TiC and TiN inclusions were not found in the electrolytic extraction samples. Inclusions and their chemistries were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The inclusion size range was larger for the titanium deoxidized samples than the base alloy. However, in both steels the majority of inclusions had a size smaller than 10 μm.
AISI 52100 bearing steels are commonly used in applications requiring high hardness and abrasion resistance. The bearing steels are working under dynamic loads in service conditions and their toughness properties become important. In order to provide the desired mechanical properties, various heat treatments (austenizing, quenching and tempering) are usually applied. In this study, AISI 52100 bearing steel samples were austenized at 900°C for ½ h and water quenched to room temperature. Then tempering was carried out at 795°C, 400°C and 200°C for ½ h. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment conditions on wear behavior, dry friction tests were performed according to ASTM G99-05 Standard with a ‘ball-on-disk’ type tribometer. The samples were tested against steel and ceramic counterparts using the parameters of 100 m distance and 30 N load and 0.063 m/s rotational speed. After wear test, the surface characterization was carried out using microscopy. Wear loss values were calculated using a novel optical method on both flat and counterpart specimens.
This work was carried out during two successive seasons (2016 and 2017) on cucumber fruits from a plastic greenhouse and from open field cultivation in El Gharbeia and El Giza Governorates, Egypt. Isolation trials from spoilage fruit samples of plastic greenhouse cultivation recorded high frequency of Alternaria tenusinium, Fusarium spp. and Pleospora alli. The most common fungi of rotten cucumber fruits from an open field were Galactomyces spp. and Fusarium spp. Pathogenicity tests proved that, Fusarium solani from El-Gharbeia followed by A. tenusinium from El-Giza were the most frequent isolates responsible for rot of cucumber fruits from plastic greenhouse cultivation. Moreover, the most frequent isolates causing postharvest disease of cucumber fruits of the open field were Galactomyces candidium from El-Giza followed by Geotrichum sp. and F. fujikuroi from El-Gharbeia Governorates, respectively. This is the first report of several fungi causing postharvest fruit rot disease of cucumber i.e., G. candidium, Geotrichum sp., A. tenusinium, P. alli and Fusarium spp. (F. fujikuroi, F. verticiolides, F. solani, F. geraminearium and Fusarium incarnatum). Fungal isolates were identified according to cultural, morphological and molecular characterization based on sequencing of internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). All the ITS nucleotide sequences of fungi were applied and conserved in GenBank.
Quantitative ultrasound has been widely used for tissue characterization. In this paper we propose a new approach for tissue compression assessment. The proposed method employs the relation between the tissue scatterers’ local spatial distribution and the resulting frequency power spectrum of the backscattered ultrasonic signal. We show that due to spatial distribution of the scatterers, the power spectrum exhibits characteristic variations. These variations can be extracted using the empirical mode decomposition and analyzed. Validation of our approach is performed by simulations and in-vitro experiments using a tissue sample under compression. The scatterers in the compressed tissue sample approach each other and consequently, the power spectrum of the backscattered signal is modified. We present how to assess this phenomenon with our method. The proposed in this paper approach is general and may provide useful information on tissue scattering properties.
One of the crucial advancements in next-generation 5G wireless networks is the use of high-frequency signals specifically those are in the millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands. Using mmwave frequency will allow more bandwidth resulting higher user data rates in comparison to the currently available network. However, several challenges are emerging (such as fading, scattering, propagation loss etc.), whenever we utilize mm-wave frequency wave bands for signal propagation. Optimizing propagation parameters of the mm-wave channels system are much essential for implementing in the real-world scenario. To keep this in mind, this paper presents the potential abilities of high frequencies signals by characterizing the indoor small cell propagation channel for 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency band, which is considered as the ultimate frequency choice for many of the researchers. The most potential Close-In (CI) propagation model for mm-wave frequencies is used as a Large-scale path loss model. Results and outcomes directly affecting the user experience based on fairness index, average cell throughput, spectral efficiency, cell-edge user’s throughput and average user throughput. The statistical results proved that these mm-wave spectrum gives a sufficiently greater overall performance and are available for use in the next generation 5G mobile communication network.
This paper proposes a method for adjusting light waves propagating in systems composed of photonic fibers, light sources and detection elements. The paper presents the properties of these connections in terms of the loss of signal transmission. Different fiber core areas were analyzed, and measurements of the mode-field diameters (MFDs) of selected fiber structures are presented. The study analyzed two types of LMA (Large Mode Area) fiber structures, and the mode-field diameters of these structures were measured on the basis of the radiation distribution obtained under near-field conditions. The results are compared to the values obtained for a SMF-28 single-mode fiber. The LMA structures analyzed in the paper are characterized by low sensitivity of the MFD parameter to the length of transmitted waves, which creates the possibility of their use as intermediate fibers when connecting optical fibers of different diameters. In the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1600 nm, a 3.5% MFD change was observed for the first investigated LMA structure, and a 1% change was observed for the second. In addition, measurements of the mode-field diameters were also made using the transverse offset method for comparison of the results.
Metallic fuel slugs containing rare-earth (RE) elements have high reactivity with quartz (SiO2) molds, and a reaction layer with a considerable thickness is formed at the surface of metallic fuel slugs. The surface characterization of metallic fuel slugs is essential for safety while operating a fast reactor at elevated temperature. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the surface characteristics of the fuel slugs so that chemical interaction between fuel slug and cladding can be minimized in the reactor. When the Si element causes a eutectic reaction with the cladding, it deteriorates the metallic fuel slugs. Thus, it is necessary to examine the characteristics of the surface reaction layer to prevent the reaction of the metallic fuel slugs. In this study, we investigated the metallurgical characteristics of the surface reaction layer of fabricated U-10wt.%Zr-Xwt.%RE (X = 0, 5, 10) fuel slugs using injection casting. The results showed that the thickness of the surface reaction layer increased as the RE content of the metallic fuel slugs increased. The surface reaction layer of the metallic fuel slug was mainly formed by RE, Zr and the Si, which diffused in the quartz mold.
The knowledge whether and how chemical species react with tissues is important because of protection against harmful factors, diagnose of dermatological diseases, validation of dermatological procedures as well as effectiveness of topical therapies. In presented work the effects of chemical agents on plates of human fingernails were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Apart from that, mapping of the elastic properties of the nails was also carried out. To obtain reliable measures of spatial evolution of the surface variations, recorded images were analyzed in terms of scaling invariance brought by fractal geometry, instead of common though not unique statistical measures.
This work deals with the inverse problem associated to 3D crack identification inside a conductive material using eddy current measurements. In order to accelerate the time-consuming direct optimization, the reconstruction is provided by the minimization of a last-square functional of the data-model misfit using space mapping (SM) methodology. This technique enables to shift the optimization burden from a time consuming and accurate model to the less precise but faster coarse surrogate model. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) is used as a fine model while the model based on the volume integral method (VIM) serves as a coarse model. The application of the proposed method to the shape reconstruction allows to shorten the evaluation time that is required to provide the proper parameter estimation of surface defects.
Friction stir welding is a solid state innovative joining technique, widely being used for joining aluminium alloys in aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. The welding parameters and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the influences of welding speed and pin profile of the tool on friction stir welded joints of AA6082-T6 alloy. Three different tool pin profiles (tapered cylindrical four flutes, triangular and hexagonal) have been used to fabricate the joints at different welding speeds in the range of 30 to 74 mm/min. Microhardness (HV) and tensile tests performed at room temperature were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. In order to analyse the microstructural evolution of the material, the weld’s cross-sections were observed optically and SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces. From this investigation it is found that the hexagonal tool pin profile produces mechanically sound and metallurgically defect free welds compared to other tool pin profiles.
A revision of the standard approach to characterization of thin-semiconductor-layer Hall samples has been proposed. Our results show that simple checking of I(V) curve linearity at room temperature might be insufficient for correct determination of bias conditions of a sample before measurements of Hall effect. It is caused by the nonlinear behaviour of electrical contact layers, which should be treated together with the tested layer a priori as a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. Our approach was examined with a Be-doped p-type InAs epitaxial layer, with four gold contacts. Despite using full high-quality photolithography a significant asymmetry in maximum differential resistance (Rd) values and positions relative to zero voltage (or current) value was observed for different contacts. This suggests that such characterization should be performed before each high-precision magneto-transport measurement in order to optimize the bias conditions.
A novel herbicidal controlled release formulation composed of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) chemically bonded to biodegradable (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers was investigated. The synthesis of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid oligomers was carried out via the ring opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone initiated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic potassium salt in the presence of complexing agents. The formed oligomers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry in order to fi nd out their molar mass distribution and molecular structures. An assessment of biological effectiveness of the obtained herbicidal formulation was carried out in the greenhouse vs. Sinapis alba var. Nakielska. A promotion of the controlled release formulation with decreased water solubility and with low vapor pressure of the active ingredient, instead of traditional formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid may help to ensure a greater safety for workers and reduce the risk of dissemination of the active ingredient in the soil profi le.