Parasitic isopods (Aega antarclica and Gnathia calva) were discovered on fishes collected during Polish expeditions to the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Pranizae of G.calva infected 14.5% of Nololhenia corriceps neglecta and 16% of Notothenia rossi marmorata. The infestation rates are probably underestimated.
Multidisciplinary research was carried on in 1978/79 in the region of Admiralty Bay and Arctowski Station. This area is representative of the near-shore Antarctic ecosystem. It is characterized by a number of local traits such as climate, ice conditions, hydrology, hydrochemistry and hydrodynamics. Estimates were made of primary production and abundance of zooplankton in Admiralty Bay and of the biomass and quantity of food taken by avi-fauna and pinnipeds. Main routes and directions of transport of mineral and organic matter are shown; some of them have been estimated quantitatively. A continuous inflow of organic matter from Bransfield Strait is necessary for the summer functionning of Admiralty Bay.
The main current system occurring at Admiralty Bay is a two-phase flow system typical for fiords. Tidal waters are a decisive factor in determining the movements of water, whereas surface circulation is determined by winds, when the wind speed is higher than 4 m/s. The maximum values and directions of the surface drift current depend exclusively upon the actually prevailing wind field. The current speeds may reach the order of magnitude up to 100 cm/s. This flow lies above the two-phase system of currents generated by tides. The value of the currents produced by tides may reach up to ~50 cm/s. The direction of the current flow is not always in line with the corresponding of the tide. This is due probably to the irregularity and asymmetry of the tide and great inertis of the water masses.
Studies were carried out from December 1978 till February 1979. Quantities of suspended matter in the waters of Admiralty Bay ranged from 2.8 to 182.6 mg/1. The maximum quantities of suspended matter were recorded in the inshore zone, in particular at the mouths of the streams running off from the pielting glaciers. In the open regions of Admiralty Bay the average quantities of suspended matter were: 12.4 mg/1 in the upper water-layers, from 14.9 to 16.7 at the depth of 10-50 m and less than 10 mg/1 in deeper water-layers. The quantity of suspended matter drifting from the land into Admiralty Bay during austrial summer was estimated as averaging about 2000 tons per day.
Blood of 71 specimens of Notothenia rossii marmorata and 61 specimens of Notothenia neglecta from the region of Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was examined. The number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin content were higher in the blood of N. neglecta. The number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin content were similar in males and females of both species. Considerable differences were noted between individual specimens.
Observations were carried out in Penguin Island on 27 January 1979. The results of the birds census were as follows: Pygoscelis adeliae— 1710 pairs, P. antarclica— 7058 pairs, Macronecles giganteus—512 pairs, Oceanites oceanicus — 47 pairs, Chionis alba — 5, Stercorarius skua lonnbergi — 6 pairs, Larus dominicanus — 63 pairs, Sterna vittata—18. Other species showed different requirements as regards breeding grounds. Simultaneously the following Pinnipedia were observed on Penguin Island: Mirounga leonina — 202 specimens, Arctocephalus gazella — 48 adult and 6 young individuals, Leptonychotes weddelli — 2, Lobodon carcinophagus — 1.
Throughout 1978 regular counts of pinniped mammals were conducted along as 12-kilometre-long stretch of the Admiralty Bay coasts. The occurrence of all the six species of antarctic seals was noted, among them the most numerous were Mirounga leonina, Arctocephalus tropicalis and Lobodon carcinophagus. The number of these animals varied within a year-cycle. M. leonina and Leptonychotes weddelli breed at Admiralty Bay.
The presence of Euphausia superba, E. crystallorophias and Thysanoessa macrura was observed in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) and the size of individuals of particular species are diverse and varying during the summer season. E. superba population is older and specimens larger than in analogous season in 1979. The maximum number of females with eggs was noted in the first half of January 1980, i.e. earlier than in 1979. In E, crystallorophias population the presence of females with eggs was observed in the second half of December 1979.
On the basis of measurements of the depth of occurrence of 11000 krill aggregations and the biological analyses of these animals and measurements of some environmental factors the diurnal vertical distribution of aggregations is presented against the background of various environmental conditions. Vertical distribution of aggregations is closely related to the feeding rhythm of krill. Active vertical migrations have been recorded at civil twilight. The increasing and decreasing rate of aggregations in those periods is described.
The material obtained between 1977 and 1979 has allowed to compare body length, age and sex of South Georgia fish caught in the region of South Georgia Island. The growth rate of body length and weight of individuals have been determined. According to results the South Georgia icefish at the time of investigations did not form a homogenous, stable stock in the region of South Georgia Island.
The paper informs about a foundation of seismic observatory at Arctowski's Station in the beginning og 1978. Descriptions of the object and of registration seismic instruments are included. Conditions of registration and parameters of instruments are noted. Registration sequence of seismic tremors from March 1978 to October 1979 is described. A preliminary statistics of tremors is also announced.
Recording of krill swarms and the observations of the state of the sea and the force of wind were conducted on the M/T "Gemini" from 6 to 26 February, 1978, eastwards of the South Orkneys Archipelago. It has been found that a heavy sea and strong winds disperse krill swarms. At night krill swarms occur much more frequently than during the day.
232 specimens of Notothenia coriiceps neglecta and 578 specimens of Notothenia rossi marmorata were collected in the region of Admiralty Bay during the period from March to December 1977. The age of the fish was determined from scales. Length — weight relationship was calculated for both species. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were calculated for Notothenia coriiceps neglecta, whereas mean lengths for Notothenia rossi marmorata were given according to the particular age groups.
From July to October 1977, during the polar winter and at the beginning of spring, line-fishing was carried out at Admiralty Bay, near the Arctowski Station on King George Island, (South Shetland Islands). At that time only three species of fish were caught: Notothenia rossi marmorata, Notothenia coriiceps neglecta and Trematomus newnesi. Fish was caught in the irshore zone at depths ranging from 2 to 40—60 m.
The red blood picture was studied in 7 species of the Antarctic birds from the regions around Arctowski Station. King George Island (South Shetland Islands). The values of hematological indices were analysed, dependent on the mode of life and body weight of the examined species.
Changes in the red blood picture were studied during the development of Pygoscelis adeliae, P. antarctica and P. papua. It has been found that the respiratory function of a unit of the blood volume increases with the age of the investigated birds. The mechanism of this changes is described.
The observations carried out on Haswell Island on 20—24 January 1979 showed the occurrence of 7 species of nesting birds: Pygoscelis adeliae — about 36000 individuals including about 11300 young. Stercorarius skua maccormicki— 76 adults and 15 young, Daption capensis — 220+/- 10 nests, Fulmarlus glacialoides — 3150 +/- 200 nests, Thalassoica antarctica — 250 +/- 10 nests, Oceanites oceanicus — about 500 nests and Pagodroma nivea — about 10 nests. The time of hatching and moulting was found to be 15—20 days earlier, and the percentage of two-egg clutches in nests of Procellariidae was lower as compared with the literature data. More of the two-egg clutches were found for Stercorarius skua maccormicki. The krill dominated in the food of studied species of Procellariidae. Biometrical data for eggs of the majority of studied bird species were gathered.
Distribution and numbers of Lobodon carcinophagus and Leptonychotes weddelli were evaluated. Lobodon carcinophagus dominated on ice floes in offshore zone of Mirnyj Station and in regions of open pack ice close to the northern edge of ice fields. Leptonychotes weddelli dominated only on the shore-ice close to Leningradskaja Station in March 1979. A thesis of the lowered daily activity of Leptonychotes weddelli was confirmed by observations.
During a Polish Antarctic Expedition to Dobrowolski Station the astronomic co-ordinates of a main geodetic point have been determined. The observations were performed by Kavrajski's method. In result 26 pairs of bright stars were observed. Longitude and latitude were defined with an estimated accuracy about ± 1".
New information about presence and features of some Lecanora species as well as their ecology and distribution in Antarctica are provided. Lecanora dispersa (Pers.) Sommerf. is confirmed to occur in the Antarctic region; L. sverdrupiana Řvst. is recorded for the first time from maritime Antarctica; L. torrida Vain. is reported as new for that Antarctic area and for the southern hemisphere. An attempt to summarize the present state of knowledge for the genus Lecanora in the Antarctic region is made. Several species, which require more in depth studies, are briefly discussed and an up-to-date list of species occurring in Antarctica is included.
A new genus and species of heteronemertean from the Antarctic (Bellingshausen Sea), Oligodendrorhynchus hesperides , is described and illustrated. Some morphological features with major systematic significance are following: the mode of branching of the proboscis and its low number of terminal branches; the lack of horizontal lateral cephalic slits but in their place a pair of shallow epidermal depressions; a gelatinous amorphous connective stratum between the outer longitudinal and circular muscle layers; the presence of a rhynchocoelic nerve; isolated fibres of the rhynchocoel circular muscle layer interwoven with bundles of the adjacent body−wall inner longitudinal muscle fibres in the intestinal region. Other anatomical characters which can also be used to distinguish the new taxon from existing heteronemertean species that have a branched proboscis are also discussed.
A new species of lichenized ascomycete, Massalongia olechiana Alstrup et Søchting, sp. nov. (Massalongiaceae) is described from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The species is distinguished by laminal isidia and 5–7−septate ascospores. The relationships with the other species of the genus are discussed. From Massalongia carnosa , recorded from both the Arctic and the Antarctic, the new species is distinguished by its lack of isidioid squamules and in having pluriseptate ascospores instead of 1−septate ascospores
There are hardly any data concerning the vertical micro−distribution of protozoa in water column in cryoconite holes on the glacier surface. Such comparisons can provide insights into the ecology of protozoa. The present research was made on Ecology Glacier (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic); vertical microzonation of c iliates in relation to physical and chemical parameters in cryoconite holes was studied. The density and biomass of protozoans significantly differed between the studied stations (cryoconite holes), with the lowest numbers in the surface water and the highest in the bottom water. The surface waters were dominated by mixotrophic and omnivorous taxa, whe reas the deepest sampling level has shown the increase of the proportion of bacterivore species . Ordination analysis indicated that TN and P−PO 4 can strongly regulate the abundance and species composition of protozoa. The redundancy analyses (RDA) showed that the ciliate communities can be separated into two groups. The first group included species associated with surface water: Halteria grandinella and Codonella sp. The second group included species that are associated with bottom water: Prorodon sp. , Holosticha pullaster , Stylonychia mytilus −complex and small scuticociliates.
During three austral summer seasons, dust and soil from clothes, boots and equipment of members of scientific expeditions and tourists visiting the Polish Antarctic Station Henryk Arctowski were collected and analysed for the presence of fungal propagules. Of a total of 60 samples, 554 colonies of fungi belonging to 19 genera were identified. Colonies of the genus Cladosporium , Penicillium and non−sporulating fungus ( Mycelia sterilia ) dominated in the examined samples. The microbiological assessment of air for the presence of fungi was also conducted at two points in the station building and two others outside the station. A total of 175 fungal colonies belonging to six genera were isolated. Colonies of the genus Penicillium were the commonest in the air samples. The potential epidemiological consequences for indigenous species as a result of unintentional transport of fungal propagules to the Antarctic biome are discussed in the light of rapid climate change in some parts of the Ant − arctic and adaptation of fungi to extreme conditions.