This introduction to the volume outlines the conception of the pedagogical city. The author stresses flows, or continuous exchange between citizens as specific to city life. Such flows concern also thinking, which contributes to the creation of a community that one may identify, afer Aristotle, as koinopolis – an educational community of shared thinking, ‘a great teacher’. Against the background of the condition of the global city, the conception of pedagogical city contributes to the theory of social pedagogy, and to the conception of pedagogy of place in particular (including urban community education). One may speak, in this context, of koinpolitanism – a trait of thinking capable of inspiring the flow of changes taking place in the cities of today. The papers collected in this volume contribute to the development of this idea.
Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) was established in 2003 by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) with the main goal to deepen understanding of the dynamic Earth system by quantifying human-induced Earth’s changes in space and time. GGOS allows not only for advancing Earth Science, including solid Earth, oceans, ice, atmosphere, but also for better understanding processes between different constituents forming the system Earth, and most importantly, for helping authorities to make intelligent societal decisions. GGOS comprises different components to provide the geodetic infrastructure necessary for monitoring the Earth system and global changes. The infrastructure spread from the global scale, through regional, to national scales. This contribution describes the GGOS structure, components, and goals with the main focus on GGOS activities in Poland, including both the development of the geodetic observing infrastructure as well as advances in processing geodetic observations supporting GGOS goals and providing high-accuracy global geodetic parameters.
Contemporary world brings along a continuing interpenetration of cultures strengthened by the migration revolution. The social space created by multiplicity of ethnic groups is very often a result of migration processes which totally formed such states as Canada or Australia. The sources of the European multiculturalism were, on the one hand, the officially accepted workforce, on the other hand – immigration being the effect of the colonial past of such states as France, Great Britain or Germany