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Abstract

The article is an attempt to evaluate accuracy of Marx’s predictions and to present some reasons for Marx’s ineffectiveness as a forecaster. The article discusses contemporary research on forecasting, uses the results to Marx, and analyses the dialectic aspect of laws in order to explain forecasting weaknesses of Marx. The author of Capital turns out to be – in P.E. Tetlock’s typology – a ‘hedgehog’, i.e.: a bad forecaster, who uses questionable methods to defend his predictions at all costs.
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Abstract

W artykule analizuję Elzenberga koncepcję wartości ujemnej w świetle jego aksjologii. Ukazuję konsekwencje teorii Elzenberga, przedstawiam jej zalety i wady. Te ostatnie staram się zminimalizować, dokonując – w duchu Elzenberga – uzupełnień oryginalnej koncepcji. W ostatniej części artykułu pokazuję, jak można stworzyć jednolitą teorię wartości ujemnej – i wartości w ogóle – która obejmowałaby zarówno wartości perfekcyjne, jak też wartości utylitarne, a także uwzględniała stopniowalność cech.
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Abstract

The aim of this article is a critical analysis of Peter F. Strawson’s theory of primitiveness of the concept of person contained in the third chapter of the Individuals. The problems associated with the distinction between M-predicates and P-predicates are pointed out. The article shows different ways of understanding primitiveness of the concept of person, and points to gaps in Strawson’s argumentation and to the dubious potential of the theory if it is used to solve some basic problems in philosophy of mind. It also deals with some of the difficulties outlined, but does not propose to solve them all.
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