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Abstrakt

This study presents the results of dendrochronological and dendroclimatological research of Betula pubescens from four sites in northern Norway (Kvaløya Island, Tromsøya Island and Storelva Valley), which provided a 193-year chronology. Our results highlight the importance of the site selection in dendroclimatological studies. We demonstrated that activity of geomorphic processes connected with local topography could led to reduced strength of climatic signal embedded in tree-ring data. Negative pointer years, triggered mainly by unfavourable climatic conditions and insect outbreaks, were common for all site chronologies in 1945, 1955, 1965, 1975, 1986, 2004. However, some site-specific differences were also distinguished. Response function analysis confirmed that June, July and August temperatures were positively correlated with tree-ring widths. This climate-growth relationship was stable throughout the years 1925-2000. From summer temperature reconstruction back to AD 1820, two colder (c. 1835-1850 and 1890-1920) and two warmer (c. 1825-1835 and 1920-1940) periods were identified. The tree-ring record from the Tromsø Region, well correlated between series, sites and climate variables, is an important element of a large-scale reconstruction of pre-instrumental climate variation in the northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Our dendroclimatic reconstruction corresponds well with other climate proxy data, like fluctuations of mountain glaciers in Scandinavia or sea ice extent.
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Abstrakt

This paper constitutes the sensitivity study of application the Polar WRF model to the Svalbard area with testing selected parameterizations, including planetary boundary layer, radiation and microphysics schemes. The model was configured, using three one-way nested domains with 27 km, 9 km and 3 km grid cell resolutions. Results from the innermost domain were presented and compared against measured wind speed and air temperature at 10 meteorological stations. The study period covers two months: June 2008 and January 2009. Significant differences between simulations results occurred for planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in January 2009. The Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme resulted in the lowest errors for air temperature, according to mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient values, where for wind speed this scheme was the worst from all the PBL schemes tested. In the case of June 2008, shortwave and longwave radiation schemes influenced the results the most. Generally, higher correlations were obtained for January, both for air temperature and wind speed. However, the model performs better for June in terms of ME and MAE error statistics. The results were also analyzed spatially, to summarize the uncertainty of the model results related to the analyzed parameterization schemes groups. Significant variability among simulations was calculated for January 2009 over the northern part of Spitsbergen and fjords for the PBL schemes. Standard deviations for monthly average simulated values were up to 3.5°C for air temperature and around 1 m s-1 for wind speed.
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Abstrakt

The Hornsund region is characterised by a topoclimatic variation, which results principally from the local orography, the vicinity of open sea and the two contrasting environments: non-glaciated and glaciated. The specific types of atmospheric circulation determine the local thermal differences. The west coast is characterised by the most favourable thermal conditions, where air temperature is largely determined by foehn processes. The temperature at the Baranowski Station is 0.8°C higher on average than that of the Polish Polar Station on the northern shore of Hornsund . The temperature in the northern shore of the fjord happens to be higher than that on the west coast, which is attributed to the NW cyclonic inflow of cool Arctic air masses. During intermediate weather, when ground frost-thaw takes place, the northern shore of Hornsund is warmer by 0.5°C ; whereas, during moderately frosty weather, it is warmer by 0.2°C than the west coast. The differences result from the effect of the warmer fjord waters on the surrounding air temperature. During moderately warm weather, more favourable conditions occur near the Baranowski Station, expressed by the mean temperature difference of 0.9°C. The greatest temperature difference of 1.5°C on average is normally recorded during warm weather.
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Abstrakt

The ablation of glaciers is an important factor in energy exchange between the atmosphere and land ice masses. The dynamics of ablation closely reflects climate changes and is important for the estimation of the outflow of meltwater, which, having penetrated a glacier to bedrock, stimulates its velocity by increasing basal sliding. More detailed studies using automatic weather stations (AWS) and the calculation of the energy budget are rarely conducted on small glaciers. The mass balance of the Hans Glacier has been monitored since 1989. Its intensified monitoring using AWS began in 2003. The results show that ablation depends more evidently on the daily mean and maximum air temperature and wind speed than on total and net radiation. Ablation, both that controlled by sonic height ranger and that measured manually on stakes, was compared with the values calculated on the basis of energy flux formulas applied by Oerlemans (2000). The statistical results allowed us to construct empirical equations, which in turn enabled us to compute the course and total ablation during the summer seasons. It can be described on the basis of two primary meteorological elements (air temperature and wind speed), as recorded in the station representing the regional area (Hornsund) or measured in situ on the glacier. Standard measurements of ablation from the years 1989-2004 were used to verify empirical model. The computed mean value of summer ablation for 1989-2004 was calculated at 1.35 m , differing from real measurements by only 10% (with SD = 0.18). The results obtained illustrate that an empirical equation can be applied in time series analyses. A regional ablation model enables us to investigate the mass-balance history of glaciers on the basis of meteorological data.
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Abstrakt

The results of the application and evaluation of the r.sun model for calculation of the total solar radiation for the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (SW Spitsbergen) are presented. Linke Turbidity Factor (LTF), which is the obligatory parameter for direct and diffused radiation calculations with the r.sun model, is derived here with the empirical formula and meteoro− logical measurements. Few different approaches for calculation of LTF are presented and tested. The r.sun model results, calculated with these various LTF, are evaluated through comparison with total solar radiation measurements gathered at Polish Polar Station. The r.sun model is found to be in good agreement with the measurements for clear sky condi− tions, with the explained variance (R2) close to 0.9. Overall, the model slightly underesti− mates the measured total radiation. Reasonable results were calculated for the cloudiness condition up to 2 octas, and for these r.sun model can be considered as a reliable and flexible tool providing spatial data on solar radiation for the study area.
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Abstrakt

Meteorological and biometeorological conditions during the warm seasons (June– September) of 1979–2008 are described for the Hornsund area, Spitsbergen. The measure− ments were taken at four sites: at Hornsund, at the Hans Glacier (at its equilibrium line and in the firn section) and at the summit of Fugleberget. The variation of meteorological and biometeorological conditions was analysed in relation to altitude, distance from the sea and the ground type. In warm seasons, the air temperature at Hornsund was 2.2°C higher on aver− age than at the Hans Glacier (central section) and by 2.8°C than at the Hans Glacier (firn sec− tion) and at Fugleberget. The average wind speed recorded at Hornsund was higher (0.6ms−1) than at the Hans Glacier and lower (0.9ms−1) than at Fugleberget. Four biometeorological in− dices were used: wind chill index (WCI), predicted insulation of clothing (Iclp), cooling power (H) and subjective temperature index (STI). The strongest thermal stimuli were ob− served on the Hans Glacier and in the upper mountain areas. The study has found a consider− able degree of spatial variation between the meteorological elements investigated and the biometeorological indices in the Hornsund area. The impact of atmospheric circulation on meteorological elements and biometeorological indices is also presented. The mildest bio− meteorological conditions of the warm season found at Hornsund were associated with air masses arriving from the southwest and west.
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