The majority of publications and monographs present investigations which concern exclusively twophase flows and particulary dispersed flows. However, in the chemical and petrochemical industries as well as in refineries or bioengineering, besides the apparatuses of two-phase flows there is an extremely broad region of three-phase systems, where the third phase constitutes the catalyst in form of solid particles (Duduković et al., 2002; Martinez et al., 1999) in either fixed bed or slurry reactors. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop macroscopic, averaged balances of mass, momentum and energy for systems with three-phase flow. Local instantaneous conservation equations are derived, which constitute the basis of the method applied, and are averaged by means of Euler’s volumetric averaging procedure. In order to obtain the final balance equations which define the averaged variables of the system, the weighted averaging connected with Reynolds decomposition is used. The derived conservation equations of the trickle-bed reactor (mass, momentum and energy balance) and especially the interphase effects appearing in these equations are discussed in detail.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of a multiphase Eulerian CFD model with respect to relations defining drag forces between phases. The mean relative error as well as standard deviation of experimental and computed values of pressure gradient and average liquid holdup were used as validation criteria of the model. Comparative basis for simulations was our own data-base obtained in experiments carried out in a TBR operating at a co-current downward gas and liquid flow. Estimated errors showed that the classical equations of Attou et al. (1999) defining the friction factors Fjk approximate experimental values of hydrodynamic parameters with the best agreement. Taking this into account one can recommend to apply chosen equations in the momentum balances of TBR.
The article presents the issue of calibration and verification of an original module, which is a part of the robotic turbojet engines elements processing station. The task of the module is to measure turbojet engine compressor blades geometric parameters. These type of devices are used in the automotive and the machine industry, but here we present their application in the aviation industry. The article presents the idea of the module, operation algorithm and communication structure with elements of a robot station. The module uses Keyence GT2-A32 contact sensors. The presented information has an application nature. Functioning of the module and the developed algorithm has been tested, the obtained results are satisfactory and ensure sufficient process accuracy. Other station elements include a robot with force control, elements connected to grinding such as electrospindles, and security systems.