A detailed comparison of catalytic properties of two different ruthenium-based catalysts in the reaction of homogeneous hydrogenation of acetophenone was performed. Additionally, methods of synthesis of both catalysts were tested and optimized in order to achieve the best possible quality and purity of the final catalysts. NMR analysis was used to analyze and identify the composition of ruthenium compounds and gas chromatography was used to analyze the conversion rate of hydrogenation reactions. It was determined that RuCl2(PPh3)3 obtained with a modified method described by Shaw’s group (Shawet al., 2007) had the best catalytic properties in the reaction performed under conditions described in Liang Wang’s publication (Wang et al., 2014). It was also determined that for concentration ratio of substrate to RuCl2(PPh3)3 amounting to 250:1 the conversion rate was much higher than that of the reaction performed with a double dose of the catalyst. Results of experiments also show that samples of the post-reaction solution should be analyzed right after the reaction, because even if they are stored in low temperature the amount of product can change up to 3–5% compared to the base sample and this change is not predictable. These findings have significant implications for further research of the reaction of homogeneous transfer hydrogenation of ketones. With the right catalysts and methods of their synthesis other parameters of this reaction can be optimized. The most important one is a change of solvent from isopropyl alcohol to a less toxic substance like water. This may increase the value of the reaction in green chemistry and chemical industry.
Typically applied static (i.e. non-agitated) cultures do not provide sufficient conditions for efficient propagation of suspended non-adherent cells, in general. Feasibility of small-scale wave-type agitated single-use bioreactors for gentle agitation underlies applicability of such systems for scaling-up of fragile biomass of animal cells. The basic aim of the study was to compare the results of non-adherent HL-60 cell propagation performed referentially as the batch culture in typical static (i.e. non-agitated) disposable culture flasks (50 cm3 of culture medium) and in ReadyToProcess WAVETM25 bioreactor system (GE Healthcare) equipped with disposable culture bag (300 cm3 of culture medium) subjected to continuous wave-type agitation. The density and viability of HL-60 cells were significantly higher for the bioprocess subjected to wave-type agitation, than in the reference static culture. The values of the specific rate of glucose consumption per cell (rglc=cell) exhibited by HL-60 cells maintained in the system with continuous wave-type agitation was significantly lower (i.e. up to more than 42%) than the values noted for the static culture, for exactly the same time-points of two compared cultures. The results of the studies undoubtedly and comprehensively confirmed the applicability of the studied disposable bioreactor with wave-induced agitation as the right platform for proceeding the propagation of non- adherent HL-60 cells and for providing the culture conditions required by HL-60 cells for sustainable metabolism.
This paper discusses the influence of the direction of applied deformation on the ability to gelation of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels. The application of the shear rate equal in value to the classically performed oscillatory measurements leads to significantly different shapes of experimental curves. It was found that the type of mechanically applied deformation has a significant impact on the gelation ability of colloidal chitosan solutions and conditions of sol-gel phase transition. Simple shear leads to a phase transition at a lower temperature or in a shorter time compared to oscillatory tests. Moreover, based on the final values of dynamic viscosity in rotational measurements, it was found that stronger crosslinking of the polymer structure was observed.
The flow of the investigated fluid in a measuring system of a rheometer – a capillary or a slit between rotating parts – may be disturbed by anisotropic behavior of the fluid near the wall. This phenomenon, so-called wall slip, often takes place in concentrated suspensions and solutions of linear polymers and introduces experimental errors to measurement results. There are methods of correction of these errors in the case of capillary and coaxial cylinders measuring systems. In the cone and plate system the correction seems to be more difficult because the width of the gap between cone and plate changes along the radius and thus the influence of the wall slip on the shear stress varies along the radius in an unpredictable and complicated manner. This dependency of the shear stress on the distance from the axis underlies the presented method of correction of experimental results obtained in the cone and plate system. The method requires several series of measurements of shear stress vs. shear rate performed using one measuring set, at various degrees of filling the gap.
This paper analyses the influence of the applied microwave power output on the intensification of drying in the context of process kinetics and product quality. The study involved testing samples of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.). Wood samples were dried in the microwave chamber at: 168 W, 210 W, 273 W, 336 W and 378 W power output level. For comparison, wood was dried convectively at 40 ◦C and 87% air relative humidity. The analysis of drying process kinetics involved nonlinear regression employing the Gompertz model. Dried samples were subjected to static bending tests in order to specify the influence of the applied microwave power on modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rapture (MOR). The obtained correlations of results were verified statistically. Analysis of drying kinetics, strength test results and Tukey’s test showed that the applied microwaves of a relatively low level significantly shortened the drying time, but did not cause a reduction in the final quality of dried wood, compared with conventional drying.
The aim of the paper was to develop determination methods of sedimentation characteristics using PIV image anemometry and suspension image analysis. Two methods of the investigation of sed- imentation process based on visualization techniques were developed. In the first one, using PIV method, vector fields of the velocity of settling particles are determined and then average particle velocities are calculated to establish the so called sedimentation dynamics curve. In the second one, the methods of suspension image analysis are utilized to determine the positions of the upper dis- continuity and to establish the sedimentation curve. Laboratory research on the sedimentation of agalit particles suspended in glycerine was conducted (using PIV method). Additionally, industrial research on the sedimentation of water-absorbing granular material used after the first carbonation (carbonation I) was conducted in a sugar factory (using the second method). The research consisted of photographic registration of images of the settling suspension by means of the time-lapse photog- raphy technique. A laboratory study was conducted for four values of the volume concentration of agalit particles in glycerine (0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 vol%). The research methodology, the scope of the conducted measurements and sample research results together with conclusions are presented in this paper.
The paper presents results of the field tests on membrane biogas enrichment performed with the application of mobile membrane installation (MMI) with the feed stream up to 10 Nm3/h. The mobile installation equipped with four hollow fibre modules with polyimide type membranes was tested at four different biogas plants. Two of them were using agricultural substrates. The third one was constructed at a municipal wastewater plant and sludge was fermented in a digester and finally in the fourth case biogas was extracted from municipal waste landfill site. Differences in the concentration of bio-methane in feed in all cases were observed and trace compounds were detected as well. High selectivity polyimide membranes, in proper module arrangements, can provide a product of high methane content in all cases. The content of other trace compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide, water vapour and oxygen on the product did not exceed the values stated by standard for a biogas as a vehicle fuel. The traces of hydrogen sulphide and water vapour penetrated faster to the waste stream enriched in carbon dioxide, which could lead to further purification of the product – methane being hold in the retentate (H2O > H2S > CO2 > O2 > CH4 > N2). In the investigated cases, when concentration of N2 was low and concentration of CH4 higher than 50%, it was possible to upgrade methane to concentration above 90% in a two-stage cascade. To performsimulation ofCH4 andCO2 permeation through polyimide membrane,MATLABwas used. Simulation program has included permeation gaseous mixture with methane contents as observed at field tests in the range of 50 and 60% vol. The mass transport process was estimated for a concurrent hollow fibre membrane module for given pressure and temperature conditions and different values of stage cut. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. The highest degree of methane recovery was obtained with gas concentrating in a cascade with recycling of the retentate.
The study concerns modeling and simulation of the growth of biofilms with heterogeneous structures with a discrete mathematical model based on theory of cellular automata. The article presents two-dimensional density distributions of biofilms for microbial processes: oxidation of ammonium by Nitrosomonas europaea bacteria and glucose utilization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The influence of limiting substrate concentration in the liquid phase on biofilm structure was determined. It has been shown that the value of death rate coefficient of microorganisms has the qualitative and quantitative influence on the density and porosity of the biofilm.
Twenty-eight two-, three-, four-, and five-component amine mixtures have been evaluated as possible activators of CO2 absorption into aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. Measurements were per- formed using a pressure autoclave with a sparger at conditions close to industrial ones. On the basis of these results, a formula for a new, more efficient amine activator named INS13 was developed. The activator was tested both in a pilot plant and on an industrial scale in an ammonia plant producing 300 tons/day of ammonia. Activator INS13 was applied in a number of ammonia plants in Poland and abroad.
The presence of inorganic elements in solid fuels is not only considered a direct source of problems in the furnace but is also connected with the release of pollutants into air during combustion. This article focuses on the sintering characteristics of biomass and coal ashes, in particular on the leaching processes, and their impact on the tendency to sinter ash. Biomass and coal ash with high alkali metal concentration can deposit in boiler sections and cause severe operating problems such as slagging, fouling and corrosion of boiler and heat exchanger surface, limiting heat transfer. Two biomass types and one coal ash with different origin and different chemical compositions were investigated. A sequential leaching analysis was employed in this study to elucidate the modes of occurrence of metals that can transform into fuel extract. Sequential leaching analysis was conducted as a two-step process: using distilled water in the first step and acetic acid in the second step. The chemical composition of ashes, before and after each step of the leaching processwas studied using ICP-OES method. The standard Ash Fusion Temperature (AFTs) technique was also employed to assess the sintering tendency of the tested samples. It was observed that the presence of key elements such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and sulphur (elucidated in the leaching process) plays a significant role in sintering process. The sintering tendency enhances when the concentration of these elements increases.