Multidisciplinary research was carried on in 1978/79 in the region of Admiralty Bay and Arctowski Station. This area is representative of the near-shore Antarctic ecosystem. It is characterized by a number of local traits such as climate, ice conditions, hydrology, hydrochemistry and hydrodynamics. Estimates were made of primary production and abundance of zooplankton in Admiralty Bay and of the biomass and quantity of food taken by avi-fauna and pinnipeds. Main routes and directions of transport of mineral and organic matter are shown; some of them have been estimated quantitatively. A continuous inflow of organic matter from Bransfield Strait is necessary for the summer functionning of Admiralty Bay.
Admiralty Bay, which is the largest embayment on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica) has been geologically mapped by the present author between 1977 and 1979. The following rock-complexes have been distinguished: 1) evoic stratiform complex of andesitic and rhyolitic lavas and sediments (Martel Inlet Group and Cardozo Cove Group: probably Upper Jurassic); 2) Andean intrusions represented by gabbroic and dioritic dykes with associated pyrite-mineralization (Wegger Peak Group: approximately Cretaceous-Tertiery boundary); 3) Tertiary stratiform complex of basaltic and andesitic lavas and interstratified sediments, altogether more than 2700 m thick (King Island Supergroup: probably Eocene — Middle Miocene); 4) late Tertiary intrusive complex of basaltic and andesitic dykes and plugs (Admiralty Bay Group: probably boundary of Miocene and Pliocene); 5) late Tertiary effusives: olivine basalts, andesites etc., and sediments, about 600 m thick (Kraków Icefield Supergroup: Pliocene and ?earfy Pleistocene), with well preserved traces of two subsequent glaciations; 6) Quaternary intrusions (Cape Syrezol Group), Pleistocene) and effusives (Penguin Island Group: Holocene), mainly olivine basalts, related to opening of the Bransfield rift. An outline of structural history of King George Island is also presented.
The main current system occurring at Admiralty Bay is a two-phase flow system typical for fiords. Tidal waters are a decisive factor in determining the movements of water, whereas surface circulation is determined by winds, when the wind speed is higher than 4 m/s. The maximum values and directions of the surface drift current depend exclusively upon the actually prevailing wind field. The current speeds may reach the order of magnitude up to 100 cm/s. This flow lies above the two-phase system of currents generated by tides. The value of the currents produced by tides may reach up to ~50 cm/s. The direction of the current flow is not always in line with the corresponding of the tide. This is due probably to the irregularity and asymmetry of the tide and great inertis of the water masses.
Studies were carried out from December 1978 till February 1979. Quantities of suspended matter in the waters of Admiralty Bay ranged from 2.8 to 182.6 mg/1. The maximum quantities of suspended matter were recorded in the inshore zone, in particular at the mouths of the streams running off from the pielting glaciers. In the open regions of Admiralty Bay the average quantities of suspended matter were: 12.4 mg/1 in the upper water-layers, from 14.9 to 16.7 at the depth of 10-50 m and less than 10 mg/1 in deeper water-layers. The quantity of suspended matter drifting from the land into Admiralty Bay during austrial summer was estimated as averaging about 2000 tons per day.
Blood of 71 specimens of Notothenia rossii marmorata and 61 specimens of Notothenia neglecta from the region of Admiralty Bay (King George Island) was examined. The number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin content were higher in the blood of N. neglecta. The number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin content were similar in males and females of both species. Considerable differences were noted between individual specimens.
Observations were carried out in Penguin Island on 27 January 1979. The results of the birds census were as follows: Pygoscelis adeliae— 1710 pairs, P. antarclica— 7058 pairs, Macronecles giganteus—512 pairs, Oceanites oceanicus — 47 pairs, Chionis alba — 5, Stercorarius skua lonnbergi — 6 pairs, Larus dominicanus — 63 pairs, Sterna vittata—18. Other species showed different requirements as regards breeding grounds. Simultaneously the following Pinnipedia were observed on Penguin Island: Mirounga leonina — 202 specimens, Arctocephalus gazella — 48 adult and 6 young individuals, Leptonychotes weddelli — 2, Lobodon carcinophagus — 1.
Throughout 1978 regular counts of pinniped mammals were conducted along as 12-kilometre-long stretch of the Admiralty Bay coasts. The occurrence of all the six species of antarctic seals was noted, among them the most numerous were Mirounga leonina, Arctocephalus tropicalis and Lobodon carcinophagus. The number of these animals varied within a year-cycle. M. leonina and Leptonychotes weddelli breed at Admiralty Bay.
The paper deals with dynamics of present morphologic processes and cover deposits of nival and subnival stages in the area to the north of the Hornsund Fiord. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of the processes are described on the basis of direct measurements and radiocarbon datings. A particular attention was paid to the action of frost and gravitational processes in the specific morphoclimatic conditions of a nival landscape stage. The cover deposits are described from the point of view of their origin and physico-chemical properties. The age of the covers is defined on the ground of radiocarbon datings of fossil plants found at the nunataks for the first time in 1973. These datings enabled to distinguish the development phases of the morphogenetic processes during Late Holocene.
A structure of recent morainic sediments, mainly of gravel — boulder fraction (15—60 mm) was studied in the extremely marginal part of the Werenskiold Glacier. The data were collected within three environments of glacial deposition i.e. supraglacial of dead glacial ice and layer of relegation ice adhering to the glacier bottom and subglacial ones. A distinct textural individuality is typical for supraglacial deposits. Arrangement and orientation of boulders coming from the basal part of a glacier as well as from the morainic subglacial sediment deposited under the active ice show many similarities. But in both latter zones as well as certain differentiation was found to be caused by morphology of the older bedrock, changes during a subglacial deposition and preliminary epigenetic changes that occur in the conditions of a subglacial regelation before a stabilization of a passive zone of subglacial permafrost.
Hot point drills were carried through in the Hans Glacier (Spitsbergen). For that purpose a non-cored hot point drill of 700 wattage was constructed. It was used among others for installing the ablation-movement stakes, for hydrological observations and in the boreholes an ice temperature was controlled.
A surface gravimetric survey in Dobrowolski Station in Bunger Oasis was made. The maps of free-air anomaly, Bouguer anomaly and residual Bouguer anomaly were prepared as result of compiling the gravimetric data. An image of isoanomalies proved an occurence of gravitational disturbances in the studied area. The depth of Mohorovićić discontinuity was also defined on the ground of Woolard's theories.
On the basis of observations and topographic surveys carried out mainly in the northern part of Linnedalen on Spitsbergen, geological structure of the valley was described and determination of the forms of relief by the means of lithology was demonstrated. The relief of the valley was characterized with particular regard to periglacial processes. A geomorphological map of the northern part of Linnédalen was made and a part of a cataloque of polygonal and structural soils was prepared.
The radar device for measurement of thickness and structure of "warm" glaciers was used in this work. The measurement of thickness of dielectric is based here on the examination of transit time of hight frequency electromagnetic pulse throught the measured stratum. A total ice volume of "warm" glaciers is in the melting temperature here. Such glaciers are characterized by a large number of internal structure defects. The electromagnetic wave reflections are caused not only b the glacier base but, additionally by ice crevasses, more imbided water layers and by all other defects of the internal glacier structure, too. The simple statistical method was elaborated for differentiation of essential layers reflections from random reglections caused by less extented objects. This method was used to obtain the two transversal profiles of the Hans Glacier (South Spitsbergen).
Measurements of water temperatures, salinity, oxygen, suspended matter, nutrients and some metals contents were determined in the waters of the Hornsund Fjord. The investigations were carried out at the end of June and July and in mid-September 1979.
During austral summer 1978/1979 the content of dissolved oxygen, phosphates, nitrates and nitrites was determined in the waters of Admiralty Bay. Environmental conditions prevailing in Admiralty Bay are compared with the conditions in the open Antarctic waters.
Studies on the quantity and distribution of organic carbon (DOC and РОС) in the water of the Admiralty Bay were conducted between 20 December 1978 and 15 February 1979. The С org. content ranged from 1.62 to 3.22 mg 1-1 for DOC and from 0.22 to 0.65 mg x 1-1 for РОС. Maximal DOC amounts were observed at the depth 25—50 m (on average about 2.50 mg x 1-1 ) and in chosen regions of surface waters of the Admiralty Bay, among others, in the vicinity of a large penguin colony. Mean content of DOC in waters of the Admiralty Bay (about 2.26 mg x 1-1 ) is lower as compared to mean DOC content in waters of the Bransfield Strait (about 4.12 mg x 1-1).