Because of excellent properties, similar to natural bone minerals, and variety of possible biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a valuable compound among the calcium phosphate salts. A number of synthesis routes for producing HAp powders have been reported. Despite this fact, it is important to develop new methods providing precise control over the reaction and having potential to scale-up. The main motivation for the current paper is a view of continuous synthesis methods toward medical application of produced hydroxyapatite, especially in the form of nanoparticles.
A novel absorbing pervaporation hybrid technique has been evaluated experimentally for the recovery of ammonia from the gas mixture in a recycle loop of synthesis plants. This process of hybridization brings together the combination of energy-efficient membrane gas separation based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) poly(diphenylsilsesquioxane) with a high selective sorption technique where a water solution with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) was used as the liquid absorbent. Process efficiency was studied using the pure and mixed gases. The influence of PEG-400 content in aqueous solutions on process selectivity and separation efficiency was studied. The ammonia recovery efficiency evaluation of an absorbing pervaporation technique was performed and compared with the conventional membrane gas separation. It was shown that the absorbing pervaporation technique outperforms the conventional membrane method in the whole range of productivity, producing the ammonia with a purity of 99.93 vol.% using the PEG 80 wt.% solution. The proposed method may be considered as an attractive solution in the optimization of the Haber process.
This paper analyses the real behaviour of the fluid in the channels of a three-end membrane module. The commonly accepted mathematical model of membrane separation of gas mixtures in such modules assumes a plug flow of fluid through the feed channel and perfect mixing in the permeate channel. This article discusses the admissibility of accepting such an assumption regarding the fluid behaviour in the permeate channel. Throughout analysis of the values of the Péclet number criterion, it has been demonstrated that in the industrial processes of membrane gas separation, the necessary conditions for the perfect mixing in the permeate channel are not met. Then, CFD simulations were performed in order to establish the real fluid behaviour in this channel. It was proved that in the permeate channel the fluid movement corresponds to the plug flow, with the concentration differences at both ends of the module being insignificant. In view of the observations made, the admissibility of concentration stability assumptions in the mathematical models for the permeate channel was discussed.
The aim of this article is to present a modern method of convective drying intensification caused by the external action of ultrasound. The purpose of this study is to discover the mechanism of ultrasonic interaction between the solid skeleton and the moisture in pores. This knowledge may help to explain the enhancement of drying mechanism affected by ultrasound, particularly with respect to biological products like fruits and vegetables. The experimental kinetics tests were conducted in a hybrid dryer equipped with a new ultrasonic generator. The drying kinetics curves determined on the basis of drying model developed by the author were validated with those by the ones obtained from experimental tests. The intensification of heat and mass transfer processes due to ultrasound induced heating effect and vibration effect are analysed. The obtained results allow to state that ultrasound makes drying processes more effective and enhance the drying efficiency of biological products without significant elevation of their temperature.
In this paper the influence of high power airborne ultrasound on drying biological material (Lobo apple) properties is considered. Apple samples were dried convectively at 75 ◦C and air flow of 2 m/s with and without ultrasound assist at 200W. During experiments, sun-drenched and not sun-drenched part of fruits were considered separately to show, how the maturity of the product influences dry material properties. Dried apple crisps in a size of small bars were subjected to compression tests during which acoustic emission (AE) was used. Analysis of AE and strength test results shows that correlations between received acoustic signals and sensory attributes (crispness, brittleness) of dried apples can be found. It was noted that ultrasound improved fruit brittleness in comparison with pure convective processes, where fruit maturity determines a kind of destruction and behaviour of dried apple crisps.
Comparative calculations with a mathematical model designed by the authors, which takes into consideration energy transfer from gas flowing through a given channel to gas which penetrates this channel from an adjacent channel, as well as a model which omits this phenomenon, respectively, were made for the process of separating gas mixtures carried out with an inert sweep gas in the fourend capillary membrane module. Calculations were made for the process of biogas separation using a PMSP polymer membrane, relative to helium as the sweep gas. It was demonstrated that omitting the energy transfer in the mathematical model might lead to obtaining results which indicate that the capacity of the process expressed by the value of feed flux subjected to separation is by several percent higher than in reality.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a compound responsible for the greenhouse effect. One of the methods of CO2 capture from the gas stream is adsorption process. In this paper, the adsorption equilibrium isotherms of CO2 on zeolite 13X were measured at different temperatures (293.15 K, 303.15 K, 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 348.15 K, 373.15 K, 393.15 K) and under pressures up to 2 MPa. These data were obtained using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyzer (IGA-002, Hiden Isochema, UK). Selected multitemperature adsorption isotherm equations, namely Toth, Langmuir–Freundlich, and, Langmuir were correlated with experimental data.
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of distilled water flowrate in two different porousmembrane modules on the size of generated nitrogen nanobubbles. Modules had different diameter and number of membrane tubes inside the module. As bubbles are cut off from the membrane surface by a shear stress induced by the liquid flow, the change in the linear liquid velocity should result in a change of the generated bubble diameter. For both modules, higher flowrate of liquid induced generation of smaller bubbles, which was consistent with our expectations. This effect can help us in generation of bubbles of desired size.
This paper presents an experimental study on chicken egg white solution ultrafiltration, where membrane fouling has been the main point of concern. Separation process has been performed with a 150 kDa tubular ceramic TiO2/Al2O3 membrane. The operating parameters have been set as follows: transmembrane pressure 105–310 kPa, cross-flow velocity 2.73–4.55 m/s, pH 5 and constant temperature of 293 K. Resistance-in-series model has been used to calculate total resistance and its components. The experimental data have been described with four pore blocking models (complete blocking, intermediate blocking, standard blocking and cake filtration). The results obtained show that the dominant fouling mechanism is represented by cake filtration model.
Silica multichannel monoliths modified with zirconia, titania and alumina have been used as reactive cores of microreactors and studied in chemoselective reduction (MPV) of cyclohexanon/benzaldehyde with 2-butanol as a hydrogen donor. The attachment of metal oxides to the silica surface was confirmed by FT–IR spectroscopy, and dispersion of metal oxides was studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy. the catalytic activity of the lewis acid centres in both chemical processes decreased in the order zirconia > alumina > titania. This activity is in good agreement with dispersion and coordination of metal species. good stability of zirconia-grafted reactors was confirmed. high porosity of the monoliths and the presence of large meandering flow-through channels with a diameter of ca. 30 mm facilitate fluid transport and very effective mixing in the microreactors. The whole synthesis process is perfectly in line with trends of modern flow chemistry
This paper presents an effect of general dimensions of a reverse flow mini-cyclone with a tangential inlet on its separation efficiency. Several mini-cyclone design modifications are presented and evaluated for use in the air filtration systems of motor vehicles. Local design improvements of three components of a reverse flow mini-cyclone with a tangential inlet D-40 of an air filter fitted in an all-terrain vehicle engine were introduced. An asymmetric curvilinear shape of an outlet port was used instead of a symmetrical shape. An outlet vortex finder inlet port shape was streamlined, and a cylindrical outlet vortex finder of the cyclone was replaced with a conical one. Experimental evaluation of the effects of the design improvements of mini-cyclone on its separation efficiency and performance as well as flow resistance was carried out. Separation efficiency of the cyclone was determined using the mass method as a product of dust mass retained by the mini-cyclone and supplied to the mini-cyclone in a specified time. Separation performance of the cyclone was determined as the largest dust particle dz =dzmax in a specific test cycle in the cyclone outlet air stream. A polydisperse PTC-D test dust used in Poland, a substitute for AC-fine test dust was used. Dust concentration at the mini-cyclone inlet was kept at 1 g/m3. The size and total number of dust particles in the air stream at the outlet of the original mini-cyclone and at the outlet of the improved mini-cyclone was determined using a particle counter.
The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool for the design of a novel Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and to investigate the performance of serpentine micro-channel flow fields. A three-dimensional steady state model consisting of momentum, heat, species and charge conservation equations in combination with electrochemical equations has been developed. The design of the PEMFC involved electrolyte membrane, anode and cathode catalyst layers, anode and cathode gas diffusion layers, two collectors and serpentine micro-channels of air and fuel. The distributions of mass fraction, temperature, pressure drop and gas flows through the PEMFC were studied. The current density was predicted in a wide scope of voltage. The current density – voltage curve and power characteristic of the analysed PEMFC design were obtained. A validation study showed that the developed model was able to assess the PEMFC performance.
In the present work the results of the investigations on dead zone formation conditions in catalyst pellet are discussed. A new, simple method of determining the types of kinetic equations for which such a zone can appear was developed on the basis of simple mathematical transformations. It was shown that: (i) pellet geometry has no influence on necessary conditions of the origination of dead zone (ii) only driving-force term (in the sense of Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson kinetic approach) decides if a dead zone is formed. A new algorithm which allows fast and precise evaluation of critical Thiele modulus Fcrit (in a catalyst pellet for F>Fcrit the dead zone appears) was proposed and tested.
The paper discusses the feasibility, effectiveness and validity of a gas turbine power plant, operated according to the Brayton comparative cycle in order to develop low-potential waste heat (160◦C) and convert it into electricity. Fourteen working fluids, mainly with organic origin have been examined. It can be concluded that low molecular weight working fluids allow to obtain higher power efficiency of Brayton cycle only if conversions without taking into account internal losses are considered. For the cycle that takes into account the compression conversion efficiency in the compressor and expansion in the gas turbine, the highest efficiency was obtained for the perfluoropentane working medium and other substances with relatively high molecular weight values. However, even for the cycle using internal heat recovery, the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle did not exceed 7%.The paper discusses the feasibility, effectiveness and validity of a gas turbine power plant, operated according to the Brayton comparative cycle in order to develop low-potential waste heat (160◦C) and convert it into electricity. Fourteen working fluids, mainly with organic origin have been examined. It can be concluded that low molecular weight working fluids allow to obtain higher power efficiency of Brayton cycle only if conversions without taking into account internal losses are considered. For the cycle that takes into account the compression conversion efficiency in the compressor and expansion in the gas turbine, the highest efficiency was obtained for the perfluoropentane working medium and other substances with relatively high molecular weight values. However, even for the cycle using internal heat recovery, the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle did not exceed 7%.
The aim of the present work is to verify a numerical implementation of a binary fluid, heat conduction dominated solidification model with a novel semi-analytical solution to the heat diffusion equation. The semi-analytical solution put forward by Chakaraborty and Dutta (2002) is extended by taking into account variable in the mushy region solid/liquid mixture heat conduction coefficient. Subsequently, the range in which the extended semi-analytical solution can be used to verify numerical solutions is investigated and determined. It has been found that linearization introduced to analytically integrate the heat diffusion equation impairs its ability to predict solidus and liquidus line positions whenever the magnitude of latent heat of fusion exceeds a certain value.
The aim of the paper is to present the hydrodynamic, mass transfer and illumination characteristics of a laboratory helical-tube photobioreactor Biostat PBR-2S, commercially available and used in many laboratories in Poland and worldwide. The investigated hydrodynamics parameters were: mean liquid circulation rate, liquid velocity/residence time in the tubular part of the apparatus and mixing time, measured in the wide range of rotary speed of the circulation pump. The influence of the aeration intensity on these parameters was also checked. The volumetric oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer coefficients in the liquid phase and their dependency on the liquid circulation rate and gas inflow rate were determined. The experiments were performed in tap water and then in a real three-phase cultivation broth at the end of thermophilic cyanobacteria T. synechococus growth. For the final evaluation of the tested PBR there were series of test cultivations run under different conditions of illumination. The highest final concentration of the biomass of tested cyanobacteria reached the relatively high value of 4.38 g/dm3 of the dry biomass, although the process conditions were not fully optimized. The laboratory photobioreactor PBR-2S proved to be a good tool for investigations of microalgae cultivation processes. The presented results and practical observations may help to analyze and understand the mutual influence of the specific process parameters in the described PBR, especially during autotrophic organism cultivations.
On the basis of hydrogen peroxide decomposition process occurring in the bioreactor with fixed-bed of commercial catalase the optimal feed temperature was determined. This feed temperature was obtained by maximizing the time-average substrate conversion under constant feed flow rate and temperature constraints. In calculations, convection-diffusion-reaction immobilized enzyme fixed-bed bioreactor described by a coupled mass and energy balances as well as general kinetic equation for rate of enzyme deactivation was taken into consideration. This model is based on kinetic, hydrodynamic and mass-transfer parameters estimated in earlier work. The simulation showed that in the biotransformation with thermal deactivation of catalase optimal feed temperature is only affected by kinetic parameters for enzyme deactivation and decreases with increasing value of activation energy for deactivation. When catalase undergoes parallel deactivation the optimal feed temperature is strongly dependent on hydrogen peroxide feed concentration, feed flow rate and diffusional resistances expressed by biocatalyst effectiveness factor. It has been shown that the more significant diffusional resistances and the higher hydrogen peroxide conversions, the higher the optimal feed temperature is expected.