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Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss exposure to stress and the incidence of occupational burnout among oncology nurses. Methods: To study the discussed issue, we analyzed six full-text research papers which were searchable by EBSCO and met all required criteria (words included in the abstract, English publication, size of the study group). Results: Exposure to chronic occupational stress may lead to developing burnout syndrome. Social service professionals are especially affected as they are expected to be emotionally engaged in their jobs, which particularly applies to such health care professionals as nurses, psychologists, police officers and social workers. Because of occupational burnout work efficiency may deteriorate. Oncology nurses are among the most affected nurse groups in terms of exposure to the risk of burnout. Conclusions: Oncology nurses as well as other oncology workers exhibit an increased risk and a higher grade of burnout. Psychological training sessions are available which effectively prevent and alleviate the effects of burnout.
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Abstract

Investigating human emotions empirically is still considered to be challenging, mostly due to the questionable validity of the results obtained when employing individual types of measures. Among the most frequently used methods to study emotional reactions are self-report, autonomic, neurophysiological, and behavioral measures. Importantly, previous studies on emotional responding have rarely triangulated the aforementioned research methods. In this paper we discuss main methodological considerations related to the use of physiological and self-report measures in emotion studies, based on our previous research on the processing of emotionally-laden narratives in the native and non-native language, where we employed the SUPIN S30 questionnaire as a self-report tool, and galvanic skin response (GSR) as a physiological measure (Jankowiak & Korpal, 2018). The findings revealed a more pronounced reaction to stimuli presented in the native relative to the non-native language, which was however reflected only in GSR patterns. The lack of correlation between GSR and SUPIN scores might have resulted from a number of methodological considerations, such as social desirability bias, sensitive questions, lack of emotional self-awareness, compromised ecological validity, and laboratory anxiety, all of which are thoroughly discussed in the article.
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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the importance of social bonds for our ability to cope with traumatizing incidents. It is theorized that the dysfunctions related to trauma, such as alexithymia and dissociation can be linked to certain parental attitudes towards a child in an early developmental stages together with characteristics of the trauma itself, namely the identity of the perpetrator, understood as his or her social closeness to the victim. Participants: A total number of 60 participants, selected randomly from a population, psychiatric hospital patients as well as psychotherapy centers were tested using four questionnaires (TAS-26, PSD, CES, PBI). Results: The analyses revealed that high alexithymia levels are related to demanding attitude of the caregivers, whereas dissociation is more common in people who remember their parents as inconsequent and emotionally labile. Findings related to the connection between the identity of a perpetrator of the trauma and the sequelae showed that the dissociation levels were significantly higher in victims who suffered abuse from the hands of family member or friends than those who were harmed by unknown people.
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Abstract

Perception takes into account the costs and benefits of possible interpretations of incoming sensory data. This should be especially pertinent for threat recognition, where minimising the costs associated with missing a real threat is of primary importance. We tested whether recognition of threats has special characteristics that adapt this process to the task it fulfils. Participants were presented with images of threats and visually matched neutral stimuli, distorted by varying levels of noise. We found threat superiority effect and liberal response bias. Moreover, increasing the level of noise degraded the recognition of the neutral images to higher extent than the threatening images. To summarise, recognising threats is special, in that it is more resistant to noise and decline in stimulus quality, suggesting that threat recognition is a fast ‘all or nothing’ process, in which threat presence is either confirmed or negated.
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Abstract

The main objective of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory – Revised (K -MPAI -R, Kenny, 2009) modified as the Kenny Performance Anxiety Inventory (K -PAI) for a general population of individuals with experience in public performance in fields other than music. Another aim was to test the factor structure of K -PAI on a Polish sample. We analysed the relationship between the scores on K -PAI and general anxiety, depression, attentional control, the scores on the Behavioural Inhibition Scale (BIS) and the Behavioural Activation Scale (BAS) and reward susceptibility. Participants (N = 586) completed the questionnaires in a wider online study. The scores on K -PAI revealed a moderate to strong positive association with different measures of anxiety, trait -anxiety in particular, and negative associations with attentional control and susceptibility to reward. K -PAI scores were strongly associated with depression, but displayed no relationship with the BAS or any of its sub -dimensions. These results generally replicated those obtained on the K -MPAI -R with Australian and Peruvian musicians, indicating the cross -cultural validity of the K -MPAI -R and K -PAI. It is suggested that performance anxiety develops on the basis of the biological predispositions and early negative experiences in performance contexts.
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Abstract

The purpose of this two-wave longitudinal study was to investigate cross-lagged relations between sexual attitudes, perception of love and sex, and young adults’ relationship status over a period of one year. The current study tested two hypotheses: the first hypothesis assuming that sexual attitudes, perception of love and sex can be predictive of relationship status after a one-year interval; and the second hypothesis assuming that relationship status at T1 can be predictive of sexual attitudes and perception of love and sex after a one-year interval. Results from 117 Polish young adults (94 females and 23 males) aged 20–33 (M = 21.42, SD = 1.79) indicated that the conviction that sex is no longer as much a part of the relationship as it used to be (i.e., Sex is Declining scale) measured in the first assessment was a significant predictor of relationship status after a one-year interval. Furthermore, sexual attitudes and perception of love and sex at T1 were found to be predictive of sexual attitudes and perception of love and sex at T2. In addition, gender at T1 was predictive of instrumentality at T2, while being female at T1 related to higher instrumentality at T2.
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Abstract

The present study focused on relationships between personality traits, self-efficacy, self-esteem and basic trust, and well-being in context of entrepreneurial activity. Participants were 301 unemployed people, 157 of whom had received a grant from an employment agency to start their own business. Participants completed measures of personality traits, self-efficacy, self-esteem, basic trust, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect. To verify if beliefs about the self and about the world mediated relationships between personality traits and well-being we conducted a multiple-sample SEM. The study results confirm that the beliefs mediate relationships between personality traits and well-being. They also show that different types of beliefs serve a different function, depending on an individual’s circumstances. Among grant acceptors, self-efficacy did not impact well-being, while self-esteem and basic trust had similar functions in both groups.
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Abstract

Personality, demographics and art experience proved to play an important role in reactions to visual art. Nevertheless, research attempts that take into account all those factors when determining predictors of aesthetic responses to different artistic styles are quite rare. The study presented here investigates predictors of aesthetic experience across figurative, abstract and contemporary paintings in individuals with varying expertise. Students enrolled in Sport, Humanities and the Arts programmes (N = 181) declared their art exposure and filled out personality measures (Big Five, alexithymia, need for closure). Next participants evaluated three paintings using a tool constructed by the authors to track various dimensions of aesthetic reactions (i.e. negative/positive affective responses, self-references, explicit knowledge and perceived mastery of the artwork). Reactions to figurative painting depended mostly on formal knowledge about arts, not personality traits. Aesthetic perception of abstract art rely not only on art exposure, but also on some individual characteristics (openness to experience, tolerance of ambiguity and ability to identify one’s own emotions and track their source). Reception of contemporary art was predicted mostly by art exposure variables and in the case of negative emotionality by ability to identify one’s own emotions and track their source. Both formal art education and art experience were stronger predictors of aesthetic responses than personality traits, for all art styles and dimensions of aesthetic experience. Personality predictors were significant mostly for abstract art. Personal interest in the arts seems to be as good predictor of aesthetic reactions as formal expertise.
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Abstract

This paper describes the results of a study that examined if psychological entitlement and hedonic well-being mediated relationships between counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and grandiose narcissism. More specifically, the mediation effects of both types of narcissism on CWB via psychological entitlement and hedonistic subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. This study is based on self-reported, cross-sectional study on 119 working adults. Agentic and communal narcissism were positively related to CWB in parallel way, while simultaneously and indirectly decreasing CWB levels via higher SWB. Current paper is the first attempt to include agentic-communal narcissism model to explain the levels of CWB. The theoretical and practical implications of presented findings are discussed here in terms of the agency-communion model of narcissism and the “mixed blessing” effects of grandiose narcissism on subjective well-being.
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Abstract

Good quality communication in the family is a source of positive relations among its members. It is the most important characteristic of a well-functioning family. Very interesting perceptions of communication in the family are held by high achieving students. In those young people, communication in the family correlates negatively with their high grade point average. Also, they evaluate positively communication in the family as a whole but less positively one-to-one verbal interactions with the mother and the father. This observation is explained by the fact that the family forms a system. Moreover, communication is associated with positive relationships and attitudes such as acceptance and autonomy, but correlates negatively with control, over-demanding behaviour, and inconsistency in the parents of high achieving students.
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Abstract

This study attempted to examine the impacts of academic locus of control and metacognitive awareness on the academic adjustment of the student participants. The convenient sampling was applied to select the sample of 368 participants comprising 246 internals with age ranging from 17 to 28 years (M = 20.52, SD = 2.10) and 122 externals with age spanning from 17 to 28 years (M = 20.57, SD = 2.08). The findings indicated that there were significant differences in the various dimensions of metacognition, academic lifestyle and academic achievement of the internals and externals except for academic motivation and overall academic adjustment. There were significant gender differences in declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, conditional knowledge, planning, information management, monitoring, evaluation and overall metacognitive awareness. Likewise, the internals and externals differed significantly in their mean scores of declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, conditional knowledge, planning, information management, monitoring, debugging, evaluation and overall metacognitive awareness, academic lifestyle and academic achievement. The significant positive correlations existed between the scores of metacognitive awareness and academic adjustment. It was evident that the internal academic locus of control and metacognitive awareness were significant predictors of academic adjustment of the students. The findings have been discussed in the light of recent findings of the field. The findings of the study have significant implications to understand the academic success and adjustment of the students and thus, relevant for teachers, educationists, policy makers and parents. The future directions for the researchers and limitations of the study have also been discussed.
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Abstract

The discourse on homosexually has largely remained Euro-American with a focus on human right of African homosexuals residing in Africa. However, current debates in Africa have centered on the cultural acceptability, legality as well as mental health concerns presumed to be associated with homosexuality. The paper approaches the issue of homosexuality from a perspective that is sensitive to the cultural context of Ghana and also through a non-Euro-American lens. The author attempts to address some of the misunderstanding about the legal status of homosexuals and the negative attitudes in Ghana. The paper concludes that Ghanaians face a paradox of accepting homosexuality because it cannot be understood to further growth of human society from their perspective. Similarly, if Ghanaians view homosexuality as a mental health issue, then it is more appropriate to decriminalize it as it is not appropriate to criminalize mental disorders. Reconceptualizing the issue as a human rights one in which both anti- and pro-homosexual religious and sexual rights respectively are accommodated may be more progressive than promoting one set of rights at the expense of the other. Though Ghana is the focus of this paper, it is believed that the discussions presented are applicable to the rest of Africa and other non-Western societies.
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Abstract

Learned helplessness is often studied as a consequence of repetitive failure in a performance domain and is usually associated with the experience of uncontrollability over future outcomes. The premise of this review article is first to establish initial support towards the notion of learned helplessness seen in the context of sports performance. Furthermore, the role of performance anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism will be introduced to strengthen the idea that thinking traits impact motor performance especially when these traits moderate the effects of consecutive failure experience. Finally the paper will focus on a typical profile of an athlete who would be susceptible to choking under pressure as an outcome of perceived uncontrollability and performance anxiety. Burnout and potential interventions will be discussed later.
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Abstract

Research shows that positive affective displays in customer service interactions are positively related to customers’ perception of overall service quality. Consequently, the way customer service employees manage their feelings is seen as an important aspect of providing their services. In most service contexts, employees are expected to express positive emotions, e.g., be cheerful and suppress negative emotions, such as resentment. Emotional labor is regarded as a type of impression management, because it involves deliberate effort undertaken by service workers in order to adhere to organizational display rules when dealing with customers. Surface acting is an emotional labor strategy and consists of managing observable emotional expression without modifying underlying genuine feelings (service with a fake smile). Research shows that surface acting is positively related to employee burnout. The present study (N=180) was designed to examine the effects of surface acting on emotional exhaustion while controlling for employees’ trait emotional intelligence. The results demonstrated that employees who declared greater use of surface acting during their interactions with customers reported more symptoms of emotional exhaustion. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only among employees low in trait emotional intelligence. The discussion encompasses the implications these results may have for managing emotional expression in public performance that may result in reducing performance anxiety.
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Abstract

This paper investigates attachment themes in the life history narratives of professional orchestral musicians and their relationship with music performance anxiety (MPA). Narrative accounts derived from open -ended in -depth interviews of ten professional musicians were analysed from an attachment perspective using content and thematic analysis. We hypothesized that the performance setting re -triggers unprocessed feelings related to early attachment experiences, especially when traumatic, and that defensive manoeuvres against their re -emergence into consciousness are activated. The interviews identified early relational trauma as a relevant etiological factor in the MPA -symptomatic of the musicians studied. A case is made for the addition of an attachment -informed life -course model rather than a purely symptomatic approach to understanding and treating severe MPA and other intra -personal psychodynamics of performing musicians.
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Abstract

The major aim of the research is to analyse the type and complexity of emotions which adolescent musicians experience before giving a solo music performance. Another aim is to explore the function of these emotions for performance quality. Just before a school concert, students filled out The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL). Right after the performance, both the performing students and competent referees used The Performance Evaluation Scale. The results show that musicians’ pre -performance emotional state is dominated by ambivalent emotions of hope and sadness, as well as joy and anxiety. As a result of a cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained which defined emotional states before the performance: high music performance anxiety, moderate music performance anxiety, calm, mixed emotions, joy with background fatigue, and excitement. The findings show the functional significance of positive emotions and mixed emotions for performance quality.
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Abstract

According to Erik H. Erikson parental committal to children’s development is one of the most important developmental task in the medium adulthood. In this stage society requires the person to play the role of a productive and contributing member of society. On the other hand variety of changes in adolescence and their peculiar cause that relationship between parents and adolescents is problematical, so parents’ generativity is a potential that has a positive impact on the progress of the child’s ontogenetic changes. It is also a manifestation of correctly progressing development of adults. Specific actions undertaken by parents, revealing their generativity, are related with showing interests, emotional and cognitive support of a child, accepting his increasing independence and offering help in new, difficult situations associated with physiological puberty and social maturation. Seeking methods supporting the development of adolescent children, adequate to their developmental needs, evokes developmental potential of parents. Taking into consideration the dual aspect underlying the generative activity, the following dimensions of parental generativity revealed towards adolescent children have been determined: interest, active help, consent and sense of creativity. The article shall present an original take on parental generativity and the process of constructing the Parental Generativity Scale.
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Abstract

Consumer ethnocentrism is a concept defined as a consequent and conscious preference for local products over foreign, usually measured by using CETSCALE (Shimp & Sharma, 1987). Besides its popularity, this scale is criticized because of its too strong a normative and ideological character. We assume that consumer ethnocentrism also has a psychological aspect – it can be more automatic, sometimes unconscious, and also based on social identification mechanisms. To investigate these assumptions, we conducted three studies. The first one (N = 590), which was conducted in Poland, validated a new tool to measure consumer ethnocentrism: SCONET – a 6 -item scale, and its relation to brand preference (BPM). Moreover, we used Cameron’s social identification scale (Cameron, 2004). The analysis showed that social identification with one’s own group does not directly explain the choice of foreign vs. local products (BPM) but this relationship is moderated by consumer ethnocentrism (measured by SCONET). The second study, conducted in Poland on a representative nationwide sample (N = 1002), confirmed that SCONET is a single -factor scale with good statistical parameters (confirmatory factor analysis). The third study, conducted in Indonesia (N = 323), was a cross -cultural validation of the SCONET scale and explored the relationship found in study 1 in other cultures. The results confirmed the relationship between SCONET, social identity, and brand preference (BPM) that was found in Poland.
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