The objective of the article is to examine the approximative and adjustive uses of the verb dire, which is mostly regarded as an assertive and eventful verb; hence nonapproximative. Meanwhile, in many expressions, in an impersonal use, in negation when the subjunctive mode is used, in the conditional forms, its evidence value is weakened and the verb dire can express approximation. The study is situated in light of the enunciation theory, notably it refers to a notion of modalisation. The corpus was established on the basis of dictionaries, which are representative for normative uses, but we will refer as well to press texts, particularly interviews, where the verb say is frequently used as a marker of the position of the speaker.
Semi-structured individual in-depth interviews were conducted to explore and compare which social norms with regard to the debt-incurring process are important to Poles with various experiences of indebtedness. Thematic analysis within a constructionist framework identified the social norms important in the borrowing process for Poles and revealed, as expected, a number of differences between people with various indebtedness experiences. Model borrowers have a significantly different approach to debt than unreliable debtors and non-borrowers. Model borrowers seem to be oblivious to the negative sides of loans as well as indicate fewer reasons for justifying not repaying obligations than others. For unreliable debtors, loans are a quick way to solve financial problems. They borrow money out of necessity rather than to finance any larger, long-term investments and have their own private rules for borrowing. Non-borrowers, although aware of borrowers’ higher standard of living, emphasize that debt is associated with permanent stress and psychological burden. Model borrowers, unlike the others, declare that in their immediate vicinity are only those who use and pay their loans in a timely manner.
The article presents the directions of foundry waste management, mainly used for spent foundry sands (SFS) and dust after the reclamation of this waste. An important aspect of environmental protection in foundry production is the reduction of the amount of generated waste as a result of SFS regeneration. The advantage is the reuse of waste, which reduces the costs of raw materials purchase and environmental fees for landfilling. Non -recycled spent foundry sands can be used in other industries. SFS is most often used in road and construction industries as well as inert material in closed mines (Smoluchowska and Zgut 2005; Bany-Kowalska 2006). An interesting direction of using SFS is its application in gardening and agriculture. The article presents the advantages and disadvantages of such use. It was found that spent foundry sands can be useful for the production of soil mixtures for many agricultural and horticultural applications. Due to the possibility of environmental pollution with heavy metals and organic compounds, such an application is recommended for the so-called green sands, i.e. SFS with mineral binders. In addition, an innovative solution for the energy use of dusts after spent foundry sands reclamation with organic binders has been discussed and proposed by some researchers. It was shown that dust from reclaimed SFS with organic binders can be used as an alternative fuel and raw material in cement kilns, due to the high percentage of organic substances which determine their calorific value and silica.
The Tertiary lignite formations in the Bełchatów deposit, along with coal, are built of plastic, weakly compact and loose rocks. Their physical and mechanical parameters, don’t pose operational problems. However, varieties of a different lithological character and physical-mechanical properties rocks, causing difficulties when mining the overburden rocks, appear within them. These include: Mesozoic limestones, Tertiary sandstones and conglomerates, as well as Quaternary iron feldspar rocks. The article features a lithological characterization as well as values of basic physico-mechanical parameters. They form the basis of the geological engineering classification and decide about their difficult workability. The possibilities of their raw material utilization were also discussed.
Correctional staff is particularly exposed to occupational stress which in turn can have a negative impact on their job performance. This study attempted to analyse the role of personality, organizational factors, and stress coping strategies in shaping job satisfaction. 163 correctional staff members who were being trained at the Central Training Centre of Correctional Services in Kalisz, Poland, participated in the study. The following tools were used: The Bochum Inventory of Personal Work Features (BIP), the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE), and the Satisfaction with Job Scale (SSP). Staff working directly with inmates scored the lowest in terms of job satisfaction. Social sensibility is a predictor of job satisfaction among each study subgroup and each correctional department and correctional staff as a whole. Correlates of job satisfaction among correctional officers were: Active coping with stressful situations and Seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons.
The need for effective and rational use of land, protection, and preservation of its qualitative state (as the agricultural land soil) is due to some negative details, namely, more than a third of the land is eroded, half of which are black soil in particular, which have an average level of nutrient supply, a lot of contaminated abandoned or overdented land. The acuteness of this problem, which has developed with regard to the protection and preservation of the land qualitative state, has become particularly relevant. The solution to this problem requires truly effective methods of influence. One of such methods is the surveillance of ecological and economic monitoring of land. The article analyzes the ecological and economic factors and factors influencing the monitoring and surveillance of land in Ukraine. Perspectives and objectives for improvements in land monitoring are highlighted. The paper discloses a theoretical synthesis and new approaches to solving the problem of environmental management, which can participate in the development of innovative economic and environmental factors of rational land use, which will contribute to enhancing the transition of Ukraine to the model of sustainable land use. The purpose of this work is a scientific analysis of the various organizational factors of monitoring and surveillance of agricultural land in relation to the current legislation in Ukraine.
The two chosen estates, Garnizon and Wiszace Ogrody have evolved during the last decade or so in Gdańsk. Both developed with the idea of balanced functionality and New Urbanism despite very diff erent locations. The aim was to combine apartment buildings with shops, other services, hotels, offi ce buildings and cultural venues. Numerous interesting and inviting public spaces were also high on the agenda. It was intended to create an interesting, multifunctional space, to maximise the use of the space throughout the day, also making it eco friendly by minimising the use of cars. That`s how an interesting, beautifull space impacts the energy. The centrally located Garnizon has been quite successful, whereas the more peripherally placed Wiszące Ogrody has not quite succeeded due to fi nancial restrictions and is mainly a housing estate at the moment. The hope is that it will grow into a similar entity with new development and helped by the new rail link.
Functional urban areas (FUA) have became an important component of polycentric settlement structure of all European countries. FUAs have been defined as labour market basins, composed on large city and its surrounding areas (commuting zones). The very spatial and economic concept formed the foundation of old industrial regions. Old industrialized regions with all the spatial challenges and economic problems could be also perceived as a specific type of functional urban area. In Poland, National Spatial Development Concept 2030 (NSDC 2030 2013) describes restructuring and revitalization of degraded areas and cities in terms of spatial policy measures addressed to the supporting of cohesion in problematic areas. That is why integrated revitalization programs of functional urban areas may become key instrument of regional spatial policy and urban strategies. In response to the problems of degraded land and related land-use conflicts, it can significantly help in establishing valuable solutions, as well as ensuring connections between environmental, social and economic needs in the development of functional urban areas.
Due to the significant role of macrophytes in the functioning of lake ecosystems studies have been undertaken to examine whether mutual dependence is present within emergent, floating-leaved, and submerged aquatic macrophytes. The study included 5 small lakes from Polesie Lubelskie region. The research included: qualitative analysis of macrophytes (area occupied by macrophytes, composition, range of individual plant groups of occurrence), quantitative analysis of macrophytes (biomass of macrophytes inhabiting the lake), analysis of distribution as well as characteristics diversity of shoreline and surrounding land use. Because of differences in the environmental conditions, mostly light availability, usage of buffer zone, among the three macrophyte groups, changes in biomass were analyzed in this work suggests that complementarity not competition drive the community. This phenomenon seems to occur only in macrophyte lakes where all three groups are present and the surrounding buffer zones remain natural. In lakes where one of the three groups of macrophytes were missing, it is likely that the ecological roles are fulfilled by other plant groups, such as phytoplankton. The studied lakes represent both phytoplanton and macrophyte type of lakes.
Typically applied static (i.e. non-agitated) cultures do not provide sufficient conditions for efficient propagation of suspended non-adherent cells, in general. Feasibility of small-scale wave-type agitated single-use bioreactors for gentle agitation underlies applicability of such systems for scaling-up of fragile biomass of animal cells. The basic aim of the study was to compare the results of non-adherent HL-60 cell propagation performed referentially as the batch culture in typical static (i.e. non-agitated) disposable culture flasks (50 cm3 of culture medium) and in ReadyToProcess WAVETM25 bioreactor system (GE Healthcare) equipped with disposable culture bag (300 cm3 of culture medium) subjected to continuous wave-type agitation. The density and viability of HL-60 cells were significantly higher for the bioprocess subjected to wave-type agitation, than in the reference static culture. The values of the specific rate of glucose consumption per cell (rglc=cell) exhibited by HL-60 cells maintained in the system with continuous wave-type agitation was significantly lower (i.e. up to more than 42%) than the values noted for the static culture, for exactly the same time-points of two compared cultures. The results of the studies undoubtedly and comprehensively confirmed the applicability of the studied disposable bioreactor with wave-induced agitation as the right platform for proceeding the propagation of non- adherent HL-60 cells and for providing the culture conditions required by HL-60 cells for sustainable metabolism.
The paper presents the mental files framework focusing on its seminal form invented by P.F. Strawson and on its contemporary parallel rendering by F. Recanati. It also outlines the main ideas that stood behind the introduction of the framework. These are in particular the problem of the informativeness of identity statements (for Strawson) and the controversy between singularism and descriptivism (for Recanati). The paper presents also a further enrichment of the framework, based upon some other themes from Strawson’s philosophy of language. The main ideas of the enrichment are: introducing into the structure of the files a section of the metadata, containing information about the files themselves as mental particulars, and adopting Strawson’s referring use as a triggering mechanism for opening/activating of the files.
Changes in the land use structure, which are observed in recent years, generally indicate their negative impact on ecological quality considered in the landscape scale. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether such a trend also applies to protected areas, such as land-scape parks (LP). As research areas four parks located within the Roztocze and Solska Forest (Poland) were selected. Three factors were analyzed as an surrogate indicators of the ecological quality: the degree of anthropogenic transformation of land cover forms, landscape diversity and the degree of landscape fragmentation. The study included data for the years 2004 and 2012 and was based on the GIS and orthophotomaps analysis. The results showed a lack of general trends for the whole analyzed region. The impact of changes in the land use structure on the ecological values can be defined as positive for Krasnobród LP and South Roztocze LP. In the case of Szczebrzeszyn LP and Solska Forest LP the impact is difficult to determine due to the different results obtained on the basis of selected indicators. Therefore, in order to totally illustrate the analyzed dependence the landscape structure in other periods of time should be analyzed, as well as the correlations between the defined changes and a variety of natural and cultural considerations.
Toys emitting sounds are classified as significant sources of noise found in the children environment. Impulse and continuous noise emitted by toys, used in close to the child’s ear, acting directly on the organ of hearing, can lead to serious adverse health effects. This is especially true for children under the age of three, in which the state of the hearing organ determines their intellectual development. The current level of safety of sound emitting toys intended for children in this age group is insufficient. This is confirmed by the reports from the control of market surveillance authorities. A new approach to the assessment of children’s exposure to noise generated by toys, included in EN 71-1:2011 + A2:2013 Standard, based on the permissible values applicable to the workplaces, requires further tests and verification. The paper presents the results of the research work and assesses the level of sound emitted by toys in the light of current standard requirements, carried out using the author’s methodology. Toys intended for children under the age of 3 years, commercialized on the European market by Polish manufacturers and importers were tested. The results of the tests allowed us to determine the impact of duration of the sound pressure level measurement on the final result.
The paper is focused on the research of ecotoxicological properties of mortar prisms produced with partial cement replacement by ash from energy recovery of municipal waste. Two types of ash were used: ash from incineration and ash from municipal waste gasifi cation. According to the Waste Catalogue, ash is considered other waste, which is non-hazardous and nowadays it is predominantly landfi lled. Negative results of standardized biotests are inevitable precondition for the use of ash for construction products. The results from both biotests (acute toxicity test on aquatic organisms Daphnia magna and growth inhibition test of higher cultivated plants Sinapis alba) confi rmed suitability of cement replacement by ash from energy recovery of municipal waste. Environmental safety of produced mortar prisms is different. Recommended replacement of cement with ash, obtained from municipal waste gasifi cation, is 10% and with ash gained from incineration is 15%. The use of this type of waste in construction industry will lead to the decrease of landfi lled waste. Due to the replacement of cement with waste (from industrial branches) natural resources of raw materials used in the process of cement production are saved.
Land cover change (LCC) is important to assess the land use/land cover changes with respect to the development activities like irrigation. The region selected for the study is Vaal Harts Irrigation Scheme (VHS) occupying an area of approximately 36, 325 hectares of irrigated land. The study was carried out using Land sat data of 1991, 2001, 2005 covering the area to assess the changes in land use/land cover for which supervised classification technique has been applied. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) index was also done to assess vegetative change conditions during the period of investigation. By using the remote sensing images and with the support of GIS the spatial pattern of land use change of Vaal Harts Irrigation Scheme for 15 years was extracted and interpreted for the changes of scheme. Results showed that the spatial difference of land use change was obvious. The analysis reveals that 37.86% of additional land area has been brought under fallow land and thus less irrigation area (18.21%). There is an urgent need for management program to control the loss of irrigation land and therefore reclaim the damaged land in order to make the scheme more viable.
The development of linear infrastructure increases the degree of fragmentation of natural areas and has a negative impact on biodiversity and the range of available ecosystem services. The basic competing land use model is expanded to include infrastructure development. The extended model leads to the conclusion that due to the dual impact of the infrastructure (lowering the value of ecosystem services and increasing the private rents to developed land), the size of the natural area in the long-term equilibrium will be lower compared to the basic model. The preservation of nature ceases to be profitable enough. Infrastructure also reduces the marginal costs of conversion and thus increasing the volume of natural land being converted at avery moment along the transition path. If the decisions on optimal management of natural areas and infrastructure development are undertaken together, the result is a lower density of the infrastructure network and a larger ecosystem area in the steady state.
Formation of modern landscapes of Zaporizhzhya region occurred in the Holocene period. During the Holocene wet phase changing climate fairly arid, warm - rather cold, but the average climatic indicators were close to modern. These conditions contributed to the formation of steppe zonal type of landscape. However, due to prolonged exposure to diverse steppe landscapes economic impacts associated with mismanagement of their natural potential and increasing human pressure on the natural environment has been transformed natural landscapes and change their properties. The result of this action was that the area landscapes drastically reduced. Zaporizhzhya region was the most economically mastered in all regions of Ukraine. To further study the issues to optimize environmental management of the region, the article reproduced a modern structure of landscapes area. The area characterized Zaporizhzhya region lowland class and type steppe landscapes. Three subtypes of landscapes: the north, middle and dry steppe. Each subtype is divided into land. Within North steppe subtype isolated Dniester-Dnieper and the Left-Bank Dnepr-Azov province. Medium steppe subtype is represented by the Black Sea margin, and dry steppe - Black sea-Azov. The most popular items on the optimization of environmental management are landscaped areas and areas of morphological units within them. That level reflects the nature of the landscape area inside the area landscape differentiation. Within the Zaporizhzhya region allocated 7 landscaped areas: highland Azov, highland-Dnieper south slope, Kinsko-Yalinska low-lying, low-lying Azov, the Dnieper-Molochansk low-lying, Western Azov-slope highland and lowland Prisivasko-Priazov.
The study presents evaluating the effectiveness of the hearing aid fitting process in the short-term use (7 days). The evaluation method consists of a survey based on the APHAB (Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit) questionnaire. Additional criteria such as a degree of hearing loss, number of hours and days of hearing aid use as well as the user’s experience were also taken into consideration. The outcomes of the benefit obtained from the hearing aid use in various listening environments for 109 hearing aid users are presented, including a degree of their hearing loss. The research study results show that it is possible to obtain relevant and reliable information helpful in assessing the effectiveness of the shortterm (7 days) hearing aid use. The overall percentage of subjects gaining a benefit when communicating in noise is the highest of all the analyzed and the lowest in the environment with reverberation. The statistical analysis performed confirms that in the listening environments in which conversation is held, a subjective indicator determined by averaging benefits for listening situations individually is statistically significant with respect to the degree of hearing loss. Statistically significant differences depending on the degree of hearing loss are also found separately for noisy as well as reverberant environments. However, it should be remembered that this study is limited to three types of hearing loss, i.e. mild, moderate and severe. The acceptance of unpleasant sounds gets the lowest rating. It has also been observed that in the initial period of hearing aid use, the perception of unpleasant sounds has a big influence on the evaluation of hearing improvement.
The objective of the study was the comparative analysis of areas of Internet behavior (use of Internet, relations and Internet Addiction) with regards to gender in seven years’ perspective. The study was conducted in two stages (2005 and 2012) among Polish students (N = 452). Results showed significant gender differences in the use of Internet. The use of Internet is no longer predictor of Internet Addiction in both men and women. The higher number of contacts limited to Internet was a predictor of Internet Addiction in both men and women, but lower self -esteem in women only. Men were more prone to Internet Addiction in comparison with women and this tendency is on the rise.