Simple necessary and sufficient conditions for robust stability of the positive linear discrete-time systems with delays with linear uncertainty structure in two cases: 1) unity rank uncertainty structure, 2) non-negative perturbation matrices, are established. The proposed conditions are compared with the suitable conditions for the standard systems. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.
The influence of bandwidth of OPA on frequency characteristics was investigated in this paper. The analysis of frequency properties was carried out for two exemplary structures. For operational amplifier it was assumed a typical frequency macromodel with 1-pole characteristic. Deformation of the frequency characteristic and the structure bandwidth in dependence on amplifiers bandwidth were analyzed. It was proved that shape of the characteristic to some degree depends on some elements values. The procedure was proposed for optimal choice of the values of (RC) elements, that ensures the characteristic is most approached to ideal one. Optimal values of these (RC) elements ensure that the characteristic of structures do not have any distortion in all frequencies, and these structures can be used in high frequency applications.
The paper outlines the Catholic and the Evangelical standpoint on the primate’s function served by the Bishop of Rome and its origin. The controversy revolves around the key phrase, iure divino and iure humano, which points to the divine or human origin of the primacy. In the Catholic perspective, Jesus Christ brought the Church into existence and provided this institution with permanent structural elements: primacy and apostolate. This thesis, considered an imperative of faith, is based on the texts of the Gospel which underscore the primacy of Saint Peter the Apostle among the Twelve and in the early Church. According to the Catholic ecclesiology, it was not only a private privilege enjoyed by Peter but a permanent element of the structure of the Church, which received the formal status of a dogma at the First Vatican Council. From the outset, the Reformation has assumed that primacy is an element shaped in the course of the historical development of the Church. The ecumenical dialogue between Catholicism and Lutheranism led to the establishment of a standpoint veering towards the consideration of the origin of primacy as a matter of lesser consequence. This step was taken in order to underscore the communal dimension of the Church, with its important function in unifying Christianity and presenting it to the world. The basic premise giving credence to this function is its foundation in the Gospel.
The article is a topic outline of the theology of the Church’s unity. It shows the spectrum of contemporary reflection on this attribute of the Church mentioned in the Nicene-Con-stantinople Symbol (credo in unam Ecclesiam). The reflection includes biblical categories, especially the idea of koinōnia/communio, emphasizing the Trinitarian basis for unity of the Church, and its concrete means – bonds of unity. Among these means of unity, particular attention is paid to the bond of faith, the sacraments and ecclesiastical governance, nota-bly the universal ministry of Christian unity. Individual Churches (denominations) have different visions of unity, but also these concepts are the subject of ecumenical dialogue. The most recent ecumenical vision on the Church, including its unity, is the document of the World Council of Churches Commission on Faith and Order, Towards a Common Vision of the Church (published in 2013). Christian Churches involved in the contemporary ecumenical dialogue are aware that the unity of the Church is a reality given and set, yet incomplete and imperfect, so to speak “on the way”. In this sense they can express their spero in unam Ecclesiam.
Sobór Watykański II, który był największym wydarzeniem we współczesnej historii chrześcijaństwa, zainicjował proces otwarcia i reformy Kościoła katolickiego na niespotykaną dotąd skalę. Przez trzy lata dyskutowano na temat najważniejszych tematów, zarówno natury czysto teologicznej i eklezjalnej, jak i pastoralnej i misyjnej. Jednym z tych soborowych tematów było także ożywienie braterskich relacji między katolikami i nie-katolikami. W artykułe dokonano analizy jednego z najważniejszych teologicznych tematów, który niestety pozostał w wyniku soborowej i postsoborowej dyskusji przeszkodą w rzeczywistym dialogu o przywróceniu jedności między katolikami a prawosławnymi. Jest nim prymat papieski, który prawosławni postrzegają jako wynik ludzkiej inwencji, pozbawionej solidnych biblijnych i patrystycznych podstaw. Ternin ten pojawił się po 1054 roku jako podstawowa cecha polityki religijnej związanej z prymatem Rzymu. Kościół prawosławny wierzy w możliwość przywrócenia jedności chrześcijan, jednak nie zgadza się na interkomunię bez uprzedniego osiągnięcia jedności w wierze. Stąd też oczekuje się od Kościoła katolickiego decyzji porzucenia roszczenia prymatu i papieskiej nieomylności bądź też ich przekształcenia zgodnie tradycją pierwszych wieków. Również oczekuje się redefinicji relacji między biskupem Rzymu a kolegium katolickich biskupów w sensie rzeczywistej i efektywnej synodlaności.
As we know the idea of papacy defined during the First Vatican Council is one of the biggest problems for the unity of Christian Churches. The author of this article attempts to re-interpret the statements of the Council relating to this matter. It will be done against the background of the theology of faith that definitely relates the content of faith (fides quae) to the fides qua. In this way, certain statements regarding faith, also referring to the pope, are relativized, but not in the sense of elimination, but in the sense of their intense reference to the center of biblical faith. We have also the possibility to give every time a new shape of papacy, understood as a “ministry of unity”.
The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander), which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.
This paper presents a universal approximation of the unit circle by a polygon that can be used in signal processing algorithms. Optimal choice of the values of three parameters of this approximation allows one to obtain a high accuracy of approximation. The approximation described in the paper has a universal character and can be used in many signal processing algorithms, such as DFT, that use the mathematical form of the unit circle. One of the applications of the described approximation is the DFT linear interpolation method (LIDFT). Applying the results of the presented paper to improve the LIDFT method allows one to significantly decrease the errors in estimating the amplitudes and frequencies of multifrequency signal components. The paper presents the derived formulas, an analysis of the approximation accuracy and the region of best values for the approximation parameters.
Efficiency, functionality and performance of the grain grinding process are significantly influenced by phenomena that are difficult to describe and occur in the working area of the grinder. In a machine-based, multi-disc grinding of grain biomaterials, the design of the quasi-cutting unit, volumes, sections of transport/grinding holes, their motion and the design features of the discs (the grinding unit) must facilitate the functions of grinding in the inter-hole space (with minimum energy-consumption of the process and maximum efficiency) and minimising undesirable phenomena related to mixing and transport. The pre-requisite for optimisation of the quasi-cutting unit design is a mathematical model. Among many aspects of the problem, this study describes a sample procedure resulting in a filling model for a biomass grain quasi-cutting unit including an initial verification of the same under conditions of the evaluation of maize and triticale grain grinding efficiency, using an innovative multi-hole 5-disc and 7-disc grinder.
Calculations were performed of the thermal system of a power plant with installed water pressure tanks. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters is determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated in low-pressure regenerative heaters and feed water tank to the nominal temperature is directed to water pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. A financial and economic profitability analysis (of costs and benefits) is made of the use of tanks for a 200 MW power unit. Operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control, the tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit. The results of the performed calculations and analyses indicate that installation of water pressure tanks is well justified. The investment is profitable. Water pressure tanks may not only be used to reduce the power unit power during the off-peak night hours and raise it in the periods of peak demand, but also to increase the power capacity fast at any time. They may also be used to fill the boiler evaporator with hot water during the power unit start-up from the cold state.
The shell and coil heat exchangers are commonly used in heating, ventilation, nuclear industry, process plant, heat recovery and air conditioning systems. This type of recuperators benefits from simple construction, the low value of pressure drops and high heat transfer. In helical coil, centrifugal force is acting on the moving fluid due to the curvature of the tube results in the development. It has been long recognized that the heat transfer in the helical tube is much better than in the straight ones because of the occurrence of secondary flow in planes normal to the main flow nside the helical structure. Helical tubes show good performance in heat transfer enhancement, while the uniform curvature of spiral structure is inconvenient in pipe installation in heat exchangers. Authors have presented their own construction of shell and tube heat exchanger with intensified heat transfer. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of the surface modification over the performance coefficient and effectiveness. The experiments have been performed for the steady-state heat transfer. Experimental data points were gathered for both laminar and turbulent flow, both for co current- and countercurrent flow arrangement. To find optimal heat transfer intensification on the shell-side authors applied the number of transfer units analysis.
The results of investigations conducted on the prototype of vapour driven micro-CHP unit integrated with a gas boiler are presented. The system enables cogeneration of heat and electric energy to cover the energy demand of a household. The idea of such system is to produce electricity for own demand or for selling it to the electric grid – in such situation the system user will became the prosumer. A typical commercial gas boiler, additionally equipped with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) module based on environmentally acceptable working fluid can be regarded as future generation unit. In the paper the prototype of innovative domestic cogenerative ORC system, consisting of a conventional gas boiler and a small size axial vapour microturbines (in-house designed for ORC and the commercially available for Rankine cycle (RC)), evaporator and condenser were scrutinised. In the course of study the fluid working temperatures, rates of heat, electricity generation and efficiency of the whole system were obtained. The tested system could produce electricity in the amount of 1 kWe. Some preliminary tests were started with water as working fluid and the results for that case are also presented. The investigations showed that domestic gas boiler was able to provide the saturated/superheated ethanol vapour (in the ORC system) and steam (in the RC system) as working fluids.
Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of 'zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650°C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670°C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.
The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.
The paper presents the results of the numerical analyses for the steam turbine rotor, dedicated for the newly-designed 900 MW steam unit with supercritical steam parameters (650 °C, 30.0 MPa). Basing on the design calculations, an optimal design solution was determined. Review of the available literature on materials for turbine rotors with supercritical steam parameters was done. Then the start-ups of the turbine were simulated. Thermal and strength states were analyzed. As a result, an optimal start-up characteristic was obtained.
The paper presents thermodynamic analysis of the gas-steam unit of the 65 MWe combined heat and power station. Numerical analyses of the station was performed for the nominal operation conditions determining the Brayton and combined cycle. Furthermore, steam utilization for the gas turbine propulsion in the Cheng cycle was analysed. In the considered modernization, steam generated in the heat recovery steam generator unit is directed into the gas turbine combustion chamber, resulting in the Brayton cycle power increase. Computational flow mechanics codes were used in the analysis of the thermodynamic and operational parameters of the unit.
The Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is used to control the speed of the pumpmotor to attain the desired flow rate and fluid level in a fluid system. An AC drive provides efficient flow control by varying the pump-motor speed. The comparison of energy requirements and costs in a system where a throttling device is used for flow control on a centrifugal pump with the power used when an variable frequency drive (VFD) is used to control the same flow, evidently shows potential savings. In this system, AC Motor Frequency drive and static pressure transmitter, turbine type flowmeter and Analog/Digital cards, micro-control unit and computer connection are designed specially to control flow rate, fluid flow type (turbulence or laminar) and water level at the different conditions with different PID parameters.
The aim of the article is to present the selected results of analytical investigations concerning possible directions of reducing the unit production costs in the mining company together with some results of practical calculations. The investigations emphasize the role of the rate of utilising the production capacity leading to reducing the unit production costs. The main component having an essential influence on the unit production costs are the fixed unit costs. Two basic indices of a crucial meaning for searching for possibilities leading to decreasing the unit production costs are assumed. The first index (w1) is a measure of the rate of utilising the production capacity, the second one (w2) concerns the fixed costs coincided with the unit of the production capacity. Theoretical considerations concerning the mathematical modelling of the unit production costs as the values depending on the rate of utilising the production capacity and the fixed costs coincided with the production capacity unit, are presented in the first part of the paper. The rationalisation criteria of the mine unit production costs are formulated. These criteria can constitute the elements of restructuring program for the mining company. The calculation example with the use of the practical input data shows the impact of the rate of utilising the production capacity on the mine unit production costs. In the example two variants of annual working time are taken into account. Results of appropriate calculations are presented and analysed in an aspect of reducing unit costs of production as a result of increasing rate of utilising the mine production capacity.
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe have long been known and exploited carbonate mineral waters, saturated with carbon dioxide, known as the “shchava (szczawa)”. These waters occur mainly in the Krynica Subunit of the Magura Nappe, between the Dunajec and Poprad rivers, close to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The origin of these waters is still not clear, this applies to both “volcanic” and “metamorphic” hypotheses. Bearing in mind the case found in the Szczawa tectonic window and our geological and geochemical studies we suggest that the origin of the carbon dioxide may be linked with the thermal/pressure alteration of organic matter of the Oligocene deposits from the Grybów Unit. These deposits, exposed in several tectonic windows of the Magura Nappe, are characterized by the presence of highly matured organic matter – the origin of the hydrocarbon accumulations. This is supported by the present-day state of organic geochemistry studies of the Carpathian oil and gas bed rocks. In our opinion origin of the carbon-dioxide was related to the southern, deep buried periphery of the Carpathian Oil and Gas Province. The present day distribution of the carbonated mineral water springs has been related to the post-orogenic uplift and erosion of the Outer (flysch) Carpathians.
The paper presents the results of laboratory tests concerning the cutting process of basket willow by means of disc cutting unit. A disc for cutting wood with diameter of 600mm was used in the tests. The influence of plant’s moisture and the rotary speed of the disc of cutting unit on the unitary energy were determined. The most favorable values of the operating parameters of the cutting unit were selected according to the minimum energy requirement in the cutting process of the tested plant.
The paper presents a method of calculation of position deviations from a theoretical, nominally rectilinear trajectory for a SAR imaging system installed on board of UAV. The UAV on-board system consists of a radar sensor, an antenna system, a SAR processor and a navigation system. The main task of the navigation part is to determine the vector of differences between the theoretical and the measured trajectories of UAV center of gravity. The paper includes chosen results of experiments obtained during ground and flight tests.
In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error), and exceeds FE (frequency error) and RFE (rate of frequency error) limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1) by the window method; 2) as flat-top windows; or as 3) optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.
This paper derives analytical formulas for the systematic errors of the linear interpolated DFT (LIDFT) method when used to estimating multifrequency signal parameters and verifies this analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed on the version of the LIDFT method based on optimal approximation of the unit circle by a polygon using a pair of windows. The analytical formulas derived here take the systematic errors in the estimation of amplitude and frequency of component oscillations in the multifrequency signal as the sum of basic errors and the errors caused by each of the component oscillations. Additional formulas are also included to analyze particular quantities such as a signal consisting of two complex oscillations, and the analyses are verified using Monte-Carlo simulations.
Research oriented on identification of operating states variations with the application of mathematical models of thermal processes has been developed in the field of energy processes diagnostics. Simple models, characterised by short calculation time, are necessary for thermal diagnostics needs. Such models can be obtained using empirical modelling methods. Good results brings the construction of analytical model with auxiliary empirical built-in functions. The paper presents a mathematical model of a steam-water cycle containing mass and energy balances and semiempirical models of steam expansion line in turbine as well as heat transfer in exchangers. A model of steam expansion line in a turbine is worked out with the application of a steam flow capacity equation and an internal efficiency of process equation for each group of stages for the analysed turbine. A model of a heat exchanger contains energy balance and the relation describing heat transfer in an exchanger, proposed by Beckman. Estimation of empirical equations coefficients was realised with the application of special and reliable measurements. Estimation criterion was a weighted relative sum of the remainder squares. There are exemplary calculations results presented in the final part of paper.