This research was conducted to study the adsorption of ammonium ions onto pumice as a natural and low-cost adsorbent. The physico-chemical properties of the pumice granular were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modeling and optimization of a NH4+ sorption process was accomplished by varying four independent parameters (pumice dosage, initial ammonium ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time) using a central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions for maximum removal of NH4+ (70.3%) were found to be 100 g, 20 mg/l, 300 rpm and 180 min, for pumice dosage, initial NH4+ ion concentration, mixing rate and contact time. It was found that the NH4+ adsorption on the pumice granular was dependent on adsorbent dosage and initial ammonium ion concentration. NH4+ was increased due to decrease the initial concentration of NH4 and increase the contact time, mixing rate and amount of adsorbent.
The phenolic compounds are known as priority pollutants, even in low concentrations, as a result of their toxicity and non-biodegradability. For this reason, strict standards have been established for them. In addition, chlorophenols are placed in the 38th to 43th in highest priority order of toxic pollutants. As a consequence, contaminated water or wastewaters with phenolic compounds have to be treated before discharging into the receiving water. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used in order to optimize the effect of main operational variables responsible for the higher 4-chlorophenol removal by Activated Carbon-Supported Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron (AC/NZVI). A Box-Behnken factorial Design (BBD) with three levels was applied to optimize the initial concentration, time, pH, and adsorbent dose. The characterization of adsorbents was conducted by using SEM-EDS and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherm and kinetics of 4-chlorophenol on AC and AC/NZVI under various conditions were studied. The model anticipated 100% removal efficiency for AC/NZVI at the optimum concentration (5.48 mg 4-chlorophenol/L), pH (5.44), contact time (44.7 min) and dose (0.65g/L). Analysis of the response surface quadratic model signified that the experiments are accurate and the model is highly significant. Moreover, the synthetic adsorbent is highly efficient in removing of 4-chlorophenol.
The AISI 430 stainless steel with ferritic structure is a low cost material for replacing austenitic stainless steel because of its higher yield strength, higher ductility and also better polarisation resistance in harsh environments. The applications of AISI 430 stainless steel are limited due to insignificant ductility and some undesirable changes of magnetic properties of its weld area with different microstructures. In this research, a study has been done to explore the effects of parameters of laser welding process, namely, welding speed, laser lamping current, and pulse duration, on the coercivity of laser welded AISI 430 stainless steel. Vibrating sample magnetometery has been used used to measure the values of magnetic properties. Observation of microstructural changes and also texture analysis were implemented in order to elucidate the change mechanism of magnetic properties in the welded sections. The results indicated that the laser welded samples undergo a considerable change in magnetic properties. These changes were attributed to the significant grain growth which these grains are ideally oriented in the easiest direction of magnetization and also formation of some non-magnetic phases. The main effects of the above-mentioned factors and the interaction effects with other factors were evaluated quantitatively. The analysis considered the effect of lamping current (175-200 A), pulse duration (10-20 ms) and travel speed (2-10 mm/min) on the coercivity of laser welded samples.
Removal of mercury(II) (Hg(II)) from aqueous media by a new biosorbent was carried out. Natural Polyporus squamosus fungus, which according to the literature has not been used for the purpose of Hg(II) biosorption before, was utilized as a low-cost biosorbent, and the biosorption conditions were analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM). Medium parameters which were expected to affect the biosorption of Hg(II) were determined to be initial pH, initial Hg(II) concentration (Co), temperature (T (°C)), and contact time (min). All experiments were carried out in a batch system using 250 mL fl asks containing 100 mL solution with a magnetic stirrer. The Hg(II) concentrations remaining in fi ltration solutions after biosorption were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Based on the RSM results, the optimal conditions were found to be 5.30, 47.39 mg/L, 20°C and 254.9 min for pH, Co, T (°C), and contact time, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the maximum biosorbed amount and the biosorption yield were calculated to be 3.54 mg/g and 35.37%, respectively. This result was confi rmed by experiments. This result shows that Polyporus squamosus has a specifi c affi nity for Hg ions. Under optimal conditions, by increasing the amount of Polyporus squamosus used, it can be concluded that all Hg ions will be removed
The article presents the effect of rotational and travelling speed and down force on the spindle torque acting on the tool in Friction Stir Processing (FSP) process. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to find a dependence combining the spindle torque acting on the tool with the rotational speed, travelling speed and the down force. The linear and quadratic models with interaction between parameters were used. A better fitting was achieved for a quadratic model. The studies have shown that the increase in rotational speed causes a decrease in the torque while the increase in travelling speed and down force causes an increase in the torque. The tests were conducted on casting aluminium alloy AlSi9Mg. Metallography examination has revealed that the application of FSP process results in a decrease in the porosity in the modified material and microstructure refining in the stir zone. The segregation of Si and Fe elements was evident in the parent material, while in the friction stir processed area this distribution was significantly uniform.
The wear behaviour of Cr3C2-25% NiCr laser alloyed nodular cast iron sample were analyzed using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The influence of sliding velocity, temperature and load on laser alloyed sample was focused and the microscopic images were used for metallurgical examination of the worn-out sites. Box-Behnken method was utilised to generate the mathematical model for the condition parameters. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based models are varied to analyse the process parameters interaction effects. Analysis of variance was used to analyse the developed model and the results showed that the laser alloyed sample leads to a minimum wear rate (0.6079×10–3 to 1.8570×10–3 mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.43 to 0.53). From the test results, it was observed that the experimental results correlated well with the predicted results of the developed mathematical model.
The development of industry is determined by the use of modern materials in the production of parts and equipment. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of nickel-based superalloys in the aerospace, energy and space industries. Due to their properties, these alloys belong to the group of materials hard-to-machine with conventional methods. One of the non-conventional manufacturing technologies that allow the machining of geometrically complex parts from nickel-based superalloys is electrical discharge machining. The article presents the results of experimental investigations of the impact of EDM parameters on the surfaces roughness and the material removal rate. Based on the results of empirical research, mathematical models of the EDM process were developed, which allow for the selection of the most favourable processing parameters for the expected values of the surface roughness Sa and the material removal rate.
Flowability of fine, highly cohesive calcium carbonate powder was improved using high energy mixing (dry coating) method consisting in coating of CaCO3 particles with a small amount of Aerosil nanoparticles in a planetary ball mill. As measures of flowability the angle of repose and compressibility index were used. As process variables the mixing speed, mixing time, and the amount of Aerosil and amount of isopropanol were chosen. To obtain optimal values of the process variables, a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was applied. To match the RSM requirements it was necessary to perform a total of 31 experimental tests needed to complete mathematical model equations. The equations that are second-order response functions representing the angle of repose and compressibility index were expressed as functions of all the process variables. Predicted values of the responses were found to be in a good agreement with experimental values. The models were presented as 3-D response surface plots from which the optimal values of the process variables could be correctly assigned. The proposed, mechanochemical method of powder treatment coupled with response surface methodology is a new, effective approach to flowability of cohesive powder improvement and powder processing optimisation.
The present investigation has been made to assess the influence of B4C reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V matrix prepared by powder metallurgy route. High energy ball milling was used to prepare the composites. Cylindrical preforms were prepared using suitable die set assembly. The green preforms were sintered in the muffle furnace at 900°C for 1 h. Further the preforms were cooled inside the furnace till the room temperature has attained. SEM with EDS mapping analysis was used to evaluate the morphology and elemental confirmation of the prepared composite. The density and hardness of the samples are determined using Archimedes principle and Rockwell hardness testing machine. The wear resistance of the samples was determined by employing a pin on disc apparatus. The hardness of the composites (Ti-6Al-4V /10B4C) was increased while comparing to the base material (Ti-6Al-4V) which is attributed to the presence of hard ceramic phase. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) five level central composite design approach was accustomed and it minimised the amount of experimental conditions and developed mathematical models among the key process parameters namely wt. % of B4C, applied load and sliding distances to forecast the abrasive response of Specific Wear Rate (SWR) and Coefficient of Friction (CoF). Analysis of variance was used to check the validity of the developed model. The optimum parameters of specific wear rate and coefficient of friction were identified.
The dry sliding wear behavior of heat-treated super duplex stainless steel AISI 2507 was examined by taking pin-on-disc type of wear-test rig. Independent parameters, namely applied load, sliding distance, and sliding speed, influence mainly the wear rate of super duplex stainless steel. The said material was heat treated to a temperature of 850°C for 1 hour followed by water quenching. The heat treatment was carried out to precipitate the secondary sigma phase formation. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of independent parameters set at three factor levels using the L27 orthogonal array of the Taguchi experimental design on the wear rate. Statistical significance of both individual and combined factor effects was determined for specific wear rate. Surface plots were drawn to explain the behavior of independent variables on the measured wear rate. Statistically, the models were validated using the analysis of variance test. Multiple non-linear regression equations were derived for wear rate expressed as non-linear functions of independent variables. Further, the prediction accuracy of the developed regression equation was tested with the actual experiments. The independent parameters responsible for the desired minimum wear rate were determined by using the desirability function approach. The worn-out surface characteristics obtained for the minimum wear rate was examined using the scanning electron microscope. The desired smooth surface was obtained for the determined optimal condition by desirability function approach.
The possibility of removing organic compounds from wastewater originating from the photochemical production of printed circuit boards by use of waste acidification and disposal of precipitated photopolymer in the first stage and the UV-Fenton method in a second stage has been presented. To optimize the process of advanced oxidation, the RSM (Response Surface Methodology) for three independent factors was applied, i.e. pH, the concentration of Fe(II) and H2O2 concentration. The use of optimized values of individual parameters in the process of wastewater treatment caused a decrease in the concentration of the organic compounds denoted as COD by approx. 87% in the first stage and approx. 98% after application of both processes. Precipitation and the decomposition of organic compounds was associated with a decrease of wastewater COD to below 100 mg O2/L whereas the initial value was 5550 mg O2/L. Decomposition of organic compounds and verification of the developed model of photopolymers removal was also carried out with use of alternative H2O2 sources i.e. CaO2, MgO2, and Na2CO3·1,5H2O2.
The current study was aimed to evaluate the industrial efﬂ uents biodegradation potential of an indigenous microorganism which reduced water pollution caused by these efﬂ uents. In the present study biodegradation of three textile industrial efﬂ uents was performed with locally isolated brown rot fungi named Coniophora puteana IEBL-1. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed under Box Bhenken Design (BBD) for the optimization of physical and nutritional parameters for maximum biodegradation. Quality of treated efﬂ uents was checked by study of BOD, COD and analysis through HPLC. Three ligninolytic enzymes named lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase were also studied during the biodegradation process. The results showed that there was more than 85% biodegradation achieved for all three efﬂ uents with decrease in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) below the recommended values for industrial efﬂ uent i.e. 80 mg/L for BOD and 220 mg/L for COD after optimization of nutritional parameters in the second stage. Analysis of samples through HPLC revealed the formation of less toxic diphenylamine, 3-methyldiphenylamine and N-methylaniline after treatment. The ligninolytic enzymes assays conﬁ rmed the role of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase in biodegradation process. Lignin peroxidase with higher activity has more contribution in biodegradation of efﬂ uents under study. It can be concluded through the results that Coniophora buteana IEBL-1 is a potential fungus for the treatment of industrial efﬂuents.