Purging the liquid steel with inert gases is a commonly used treatment in secondary metallurgy. The main purposes for which this method is used are: homogenization of liquid steel in the entire volume of the ladle, improvement of mixing conditions, acceleration of the absorption process of alloy additives and refining of liquid steel from non-metallic inclusions. The basic processing parameters of this treatment are: gas flow rate and the level of gas dispersion in liquid steel. The level of gas dispersion depends on the design and location of the porous plug in the ladle. Therefore, these parameters have a significant impact on the phenomena occurring in the contact zone of liquid steel with slag. Their improper selection may cause secondary contamination of the bath with exogenous inclusions from the slag, or air atmosphere due to discontinuity of the slag and exposure of the excessive surface of the liquid steel free surface. The article presents the results of modelling research of the effect of liquid steel purging with inert gases on phenomena occurring in this zone. The research was carried out using the physical (water) model of steel ladle. As a modelling liquid representing slag, paraffin oil was used, taking into account the conditions of similarity with particular reference to the kinematic viscosity. The results of the conducted research were presented in the form of visualization of phenomena occurring on the surface of the model liquid free surface in the form of photographs. The work is a part of a bigger study concerning modelling of ladle processes.
The study presents the results of laboratory testing of the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling. A new method of determining the critical value of the damage function was developed, in which a disc-shaped sample is subjected to rotational compression in a channel. In this method the Mannesmann effect was used. The laboratory tests were conducted for C45, 50HS and R260 grade steel in the temperature range 950°C-1150°C. In order to research various methods of simulating the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling, physical modelling was also employed. The model material was commercial plasticine, cooled to the temperature 0°C-20°C. Comparing the test results for both the real and model material allowed one to determine the range of the forming temperature for the model material, in which the cracking process is similar to the case of the real material.
The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of multi-layered Ti/Al/Mg specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Cuboidal specimens were cut off from the plates obtained in the explosive welding method. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found non uniform deformation of the particular layer as a result their different value of flow stress.
The acoustic properties of the sitar string are studied with the aid of a physical model. The nonlinearity of the string movement caused by the bridge acting as an obstacle to the vibrating string is of special interest. Comparison of the model's audio output to recordings of the instrument shows interesting similarities. The effects dispersion and bridge have on the sound of the instrument are demonstrated in the model.
It is really hard to determine the phenomena occurring during aluminum refining process using argon blowing through the liquid metal in industrial conditions. The solution of such problem is physical modelling. This kind of modelling gives possibility to determine the level of dispersion of the refining gas in liquid metal. Especially in steel metallurgy RTD (Residence Time Distribution) analysis and visualization process with some colour tracer, which can give extra information about time of mixing are very popularly used. Because the modelling research (especially visualization) is pictorial, the research was conducted to check if it is possible to estimate quantitatively impeller working effectiveness basing on determination of the RTD curves. The examined object was model of URO-200 batch refining reactor. The RTD curves was registered and discussed for three different impellers and four different variants of processing parameters (rotary impeller speed: 300-500 rpm, and gas flow rate: 15-20 l·min–1). Additionally, the process of mixing of the inert gas with water as a modelling agent was enabled to be observed due to introduction of colour tracer (KMnO4). Results obtained from both measuring methods were graphically presented, compared and shortly discussed.
Detailed studies of the movement of liquid steel (hydrodynamics) on a real object are practically impossible. The solution to this problem are physical modelling carried out on water models and numerical modelling using appropriate programs. The method of numerical modelling thanks to the considerable computing power of modern computers gives the possibility of solving very complex problems. The paper presents the results of model tests of liquid flow through tundish. The examined object was model of the twonozzle tundish model. The ANSYS Fluent program was used to describe the behavior of liquid in the working area of the tundish model. Numerical simulations were carried out using two numerical methods of turbulence description: RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) – model k-ε and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). The results obtained from CFD calculations were compared with the results obtained using the water model.
The article discusses the development of an approximation model of selected plastic and mechanical properties obtained from compression tests of model materials used in physical modeling. The use of physical modeling with the use of soft model materials such as a synthetic wax branch with various modifiers is a popular tool used as an alternative or verification of numerical modeling of bulk metal forming processes. In order to develop an algorithm to facilitate the choice of material model to simulate the behavior of real-metallic materials used in industrial production processes the induction of decision trees was used. First of all, the Statistica program was used for data mining, which made it possible to determine / find the relationship between the percentage of particular constituents of the model material (base material and modifiers) and yield strength, critical and maximum strain, and provide the opportunity to indicate the most important variables determining the shape of the stress – strain curve. Next, using the induction of decision trees, an approximation model was developed, which allowed to create an algorithm facilitating the selection of individual modifying components. The last stage of the research was verification of the correctness of the developed algorithm. The obtained research results indicate the possibility of using decision tree induction to approximate selected properties of modeling materials simulating the behavior of real materials, thus eliminating the need for costly and time-consuming experiments carried out on metallic material.
This paper deals with the possibilities of using physical modelling to study the degassing of metal melt during its treatment in the refining ladle. The method of inert gas blowing, so-called refining gas, presents the most common operational technology for the elimination of impurities from molten metal, e.g. for decreasing or removing the hydrogen content from liquid aluminium. This refining process presents the system of gas-liquid and its efficiency depends on the creation of fine bubbles with a high interphase surface, uniform distribution, long period of its effect in the melt, and mostly on the uniform arrangement of bubbles into the whole volume of the refining ladle. Physical modelling represents the basic method of modelling and it makes it possible to obtain information about the course of refining processes. On the basis of obtained results, it is possible to predict the behaviour of the real system during different changes in the process. The experimental part focuses on the evaluation of methodical laboratory experiments aimed at the proposal and testing of the developed methods of degassing during physical modelling. The results obtained on the basis of laboratory experiments realized on the specific physical model were discussed.
The purpose of this article is to present a new bell type water well construction with circulating treatment and its application. The construction of the water well has been developed and research has been conducted using physical and electrical modelling as well as in the practical field. Researches in this work are of analytical and experimental character. As the results of the research, optimal physical parameters of the constructions have been found and analytical empirical formulae have been derived to calculate hydraulic parameters. Recommendation for application has been presented. The results received in this work can be used for the application of well construction. Further research is required to improve the physical and the hydraulic parameters of the proposed construction. The work has scientific and practical interest.