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Biosensors are a crucial part of most of bioanalytical diagnostic devices and systems. Due to semiconductor technologies, a great progress in diminution of costs and miniaturisation as well as an increased reliability of these devices was achieved. Application of molecular and biological techniques in the detection process has contributed to a real increase in sensitivity, selectivity, the detection limit and the number of analytes to be detected. Different transducers of chemical parameters into electrical output signals are applied in these devices. Electrochemical principles, both potentiometric and amperometric, are opted for due to their simplicity of application and extremely low costs of such biosensors. Ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) may be easily integrated into the required electronics, resulting in their miniaturisation. Further miniaturisation may be attained by development of miniaturised total analytical systems (uTAS). To ensure competitive parameters of these biosensors, optimal methods of immobilisation of biochemical receptors (ionophores, enzymes, antibodies, etc.) should be developed. A review of the work by the authors related to these problems is presented in the article.
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