Despite many years of research, we have yet to discover all the myriad ways various components of the climate interact. For instance, it looks likely that the circulation of oceanic waters has a much broader impact than previously thought.
The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum) in vegetable (onion and tomato) waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure). Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.
The aim of the performed experiments was to analyse relationships occurring between endophytic bacteria from the Herbaspirillum genus and Sinorhizobium meliloti Bp nodule bacteria and to examine the condition of plants subjected to coinoculation with the above-mentioned strains in in vitro conditions. In experiments examining the impact of Herbaspirillum frisingense on Sinorhizobium meliloti BP, the stimulation of growth of inoculated bacteria from the Sinorhizobium genus was recorded in all three combinations (48-hour culturing, sediment and supernatant). On the other hand, the examination of interactions between the Sinorhizobium meliloti strain and Herbaspirillum frisingense strain revealed that in the case of culture and supernatant, an antagonistic action was recorded. Besides, it was found that such coinoculation exerted a beneficial influence on the process of seed lucerne symbiosis and yielding as confirmed by increased numbers of root nodules, higher nitrogenase activity and greater plant mass.
In this paper, effects of non-Fourier thermal wave interactions in a thin film have been investigated. The non-Fourier, hyperbolic heat conduction equation is solved, using finite difference method with an implicit scheme. Calculations have been carried out for three geometrical configurations with various film thicknesses. The boundary condition of a symmetrical temperature step-change on both sides has been used. Time history for the temperature distribution for each investigated case is presented. Processes of thermal wave propagation, temperature peak build-up and reverse wave front creation have been described. It has been shown that (i) significant temperature overshoot can appear in the film subjected to symmetric thermal load (which can be potentially dangerous for reallife application), and (ii) effect of temperature amplification decreases with increased film thickness.
The category of expectation constitutes an important element of reflection in many scientific disciplines focusing on man. it is treated in both the categories of expectations inscribed in large social projects (e.g. of utopian nature) and individual expectations which build human daily routine. The article is divided into two parts. in the first, the issues of interpersonal expectations, analysed in the perspective of social psychology and sociology, will be undertaken. what will be explored here are the problems of defining the notion of expectation and the problems of expectations at school, which will be exemplified by the pygmalion effect. The first part is completed with some considerations on the meaning of expectation in sociology, the role of expectations in interaction, and the relations between expecting and social order. In the second part, the author focuses on the issues of expectations inscribed in utopian projects (“great expectations”). pedagogical utopias and relations between utopias and popularization of normative (formal) or informal pedagogies are subjected to analysis. The author makes here some references to the concept of post-materialistic society, attempting to elicit relations between this type of society and popularization of nonformal pedagogies.
Traffic related noise is currently considered as an environmental pollution. Paper presents results of multidirectional study attempting to serve urban traffic without the need to erect noise barriers interfering urban space. Initial concept of the road expansion included construction of 1000 m of noise barriers dividing city space. Improvement in the acoustic conditions after construction completion is possible due to the applied noise protection measures: vehicle speed limit, smooth of traffic flow, use of road pavement of reduced noise emission and the technical improvement of the tramway.
The paper presents selected results of studies connected with modeling of a biological object which could be used for simulation and measurements of the selected human tissues optical transmittance. The studies were performed for transilluminated homogeneous tissue layers as well as for objects consisted of different tissues. During simulations the software built with LabVIEW environment was used. Experimental verification of the model structure was made with spectrophotometry. The presented examples of modeling concern the transmittance spectra for two selected specific objects: the venous blood and muscle tissue analyzed in the wavelength range extending from 360 nm to 900 nm. The implemented model could be used in estimating the content and thickness of particular layers distinguished in a complex object and prediction of their transillumination efficiency.
Automation in experiments carried out on animals is getting more and more important in research. Computers take over laborious and time-consuming activities like recording and analysing images of the experiment scene. The first step in an image analysis is finding and distinguishing between the observed animals and then tracking all objects during the experiment. In this paper four tracking methods are presented. Quantitative and qualitative figures of merit are applied to confront those methods. The comparison takes into consideration the level of correct object recognition during different disturbances, the speed of computation, requirements as to the frame rate and image illumination, quality of recovering from occluded situations and others.
The article discusses the relationship between energy quality technologies cutting and their environmental friendliness. Based on the energy analysis shows that energy consumption in the individual technological process is connected with the cutting power and power loss, which form the environmental indicators of the cutting process and reduce its energy efﬁciency. In addition, it is shown that at implementation of technological processes on the equipment, electrical systems are AC systems the implementation of the cutting process occurs when excessive consumption of currents. The article presents the results of studies on the energy eﬃciency of cutting processes, deﬁnition of the complex inﬂuence of cutting processes on the environment and humans, the formation of ways of improving environmental and energy performance quality of these processes.
Nanotechnology is a manipulation of nature that has emerged through the use of basic sciences, material science and engineering at the nano-scale. The interaction between biological environment and nanoparticles-nanoparticles or nanoparticles-organic materials is not yet well-understood. The toxic effects of nanoparticles on plants were investigated and it was proved that they caused morphological and physiological changes in plants. This study aimed to determine the effects of TiO -TiO2Ag nanoparticles, and co-application of EDDS-TiO2Ag nanoparticles alone, co-application of ZnO nanoparticles- Ag nanoparticles on seed germination, seedling vigor, radicle and plumule elongation of two different wheat species. In the experimental stage, ten seeds were placed in petri-dishes with a double layer of ﬁ lter paper which was used as an inert material. Then 5 mL of TiO2Ag, ZnO+TiO2Ag, and EDDS+TiO2Ag suspensions were added to every petri dish. Results showed that the maximum SVI was determined at the concentration of 50 mg∙L-1 TiO2 Ag+EDDS for bread wheat and the minimum SVI was observed at 100 mg∙L-1 TiO2Ag nanoparticles concentration for durum wheat. The effect of both nanoparticles-nanoparticles interaction and the other chemicals-nanoparticles interaction on the ecosystems should be evaluated.
The paper proposes a study of molecular interactions using the planetary model of the atomic structure. The description refers to transfer of the interactions by electrons bonded with an atom in a planetary system. In molecules we refer to analysis of electrons that remain unpaired during the formation of chemical compounds. The planetary electronic state of molecular interactions is defined by considering the action arm for interatomic forces. Then the interaction torque is defined. The problem is studied in a collection of atoms forming a nanoparticle and then analysis is carried on in the entire volume of the nanocomposite, which is defined as a set of the nanoparticles in a field of matrix-nanofiller interactions. As a result, new mechanical, magnetic, and optical properties of the nanocomposite arise and are described herein. The atomic-scale phenomena are described by both classical and quantum mechanics and are then transferred to the nanoparticle scale by applying statistical mechanics. The quantum solutions for the optically active electrons form the basis for the optical properties of the nanocomposite using forced gyrobirefringence and Maxwell equations. The results of the theoretical analysis are confirmed by experiment using an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer.
The article presents the main discoveries of Prof. Andrzej K. Tarkowski, which proved to be fundamental for modern mammalian developmental biology and also for progress in animal breeding and assisted reproduction. Among his achievements the most important are: the demonstration of regulative abilities of blastomeres isolated from early mammalian embryos, generation of first chimaeric mice, studies on mammalian parthenogenesis and establishment of blastomere electrofusion technique for production of tetraploid embryos. Studies on nucleocytoplasmic interactions in germ cells and early embryos contributed substantially to the development of mammalian cloning. Prof. Tarkowski’s work and discoveries provided a tremendous input to the contemporary developmental biology of mammals.
The main objective of the research presented in this paper is to enhance driver-passengers comfort of a vehicle that in turn leads to better vehicle safety and stability. The focus was put on studying the interior vibration and noise contributions originated from tire-road and engine-transmission subsystems, due to their significant impact on the dynamic performance of the vehicle. The noise and vibration measurements were recorded at the driver’s head position and on the driver legs room. Furthermore, the influence of different tire types and road surface textures on the vehicle interior noise and vibration were considered. The results indicate that the widely used conventional engine mounts and tires in commercial vehicles cannot fulfill the conflicting requirements for the best isolation concerning both road surface and engine-transmission induced excitations. The values of driver’s head position sound pressure level and floor vibration acceleration broadband averages originate for engine-transmission are lower than that for tire-road interaction. Furthermore, the values of RMS, crest factor, kurtosis and IRI for the vehicle waveform were estimated for vehicle speeds, tire types and road surface textures. Moreover, the percentage contribution for both interior noise and vibration originated from tire-road interaction is higher than the one from vehicle engine-transmission system in all the vehicle speed range, tire type and road surface texture considered.
Quality evaluation is very important for haptic rendering. In this paper, an objective evaluation method for a haptic rendering system based on haptic perception features is proposed. In the method, the haptic rendering process is compared to the real world perception process in a simple standardized procedure based on feature extraction and data analysis. A complete evaluation process for a simple haptic rendering task of pressing a virtual spring is presented as an example to explain the method in detail. Compared with the traditional objective method based on error statistics, the method is more concerned about the consistency of human subjective feelings rather than physical parameters, which makes the evaluation process more consistent with the haptic perception mechanism. The results of comparative analysis show that the method presented in this paper is simple, gives reliable results reflecting the consistency with subjective feeling and has a better discrimination ability for different kinds of devices and algorithms compared with the traditional evaluation methods.
Weak value amplification is a measurement technique where small quantum mechanical interactions are amplified and manifested macroscopically in the output of a measurement apparatus. It is shown here that the linear nature of weak value amplification provides a straightforward comparative methodology for using the value of a known small interaction to estimate the value of an unknown small interaction. The methodology is illustrated by applying it to quantify the unknown size of an optical Goos-Hänchen shift of a laser beam induced at a glass/gold interface using the known size of the shift at a glass/air interface.
A novel type of an axial, piston-driven high pressure hydraulic pump with variable capacity marks a significant improvement in the area of the hydraulic machinery design. Total discharge from hydrostatic forces eliminates a need for a servomechanism, thus simplifying operation, reducing weight and introducing the possibility of the pump displacement control by computer. PWK-type pumps, invented in the Gdansk University of Technology, offer high efficiency for pressure levels up to 55 MPa, ability to work self sucking even at high speed. However, the heart of the new invention, the commutation unit, creates harmful pressure peaks. Those peaks can be mitigated by the introduction of a compensation chamber with elastic walls. Owing to the dynamic character of events taking place in the pump, a need for computer simulation arouse in order to understand phenomena leading to the occurrence of pressure peaks and choose compensation chamber parameters accordingly. A CFD package alone would not be sufficient to reliably represent the interaction between the compensation chamber wall and the working fluid. This paper presents Fluid Structure Interaction approach comparing 3 different models: 2 simplified models of the pump and a full pump model.
The present work deals with continuum mechanical considerations for deformable and rigid solids as well as for fluids. A common finite element framework is used to approximate all systems under considerations. In particular, we present a standard displacement based formulation for the deformable solids and make use of this framework for the transition of the solid to a rigid body in the limit of infinite stiffness. At last, we demonstrate how to immerse a discretized solid into a fluid for fluid-structure interaction problems.
With the rise of coal mine underground reservoir engineering in the Shendong Mining Area, the space time dynamic evolution prediction of storage coefficient is becoming one of the critical technical problems for long-term reservoir operation. This coefficient directly determines the storage capacity and the comprehensive benefits of the operation of a coal mine underground reservoir. To this end, the proposed underground reservoir in Daliuta coal mine (No. 22616 working face) is selected in this study for the development and application of an experimental device to measure the storage coefficient. Rock and coal fragments from similar materials are prepared, which are filled and loaded according to the caving rock nature as well as the lumpiness and accumulation mode characteristics pertaining to No. 22616 working face. Subsequently, the measured storage coefficient under circulating water injection conditions revealed a four-dimensional spatial and temporal pattern. It followed the law of storage coefficient under joint interaction of water-rock and stress. The results showed that, prior to the experiment, rock and coal fragments made from similar materials had good water resistance when the paraffin content was set at 8%. The three stress zones were defined based on a theoretical analysis, which were applied on the corresponding loads. During the experiments, significant regional differences were found in the top surface with persisting subsidence of each stress loading zone. Hence, compared with its initial state, the maximum subsidence in the stress stability zone, the stress recovery zone, and the low-stress zone was 7.89, 5.8, and 1.83 mm, respectively. While the storage capacity and the storage coefficient gradually decreased, the former ranged from 0.2429 to 0.2397 m3, and the latter ranged from 0.270 to 0.266. The experimental results are verified by drainage engineering tests in the Shendong Mining Area. In essence, the storage coefficient had remarkable spatial distribution characteristics and a time-varying effect. In space, the storage coefficient increased with height along the vertical direction of the coal mine underground reservoir. However, it decreased with the distance from the boundary of the dam body in the horizontal direction. With time, the storage coefficient decreased dynamically. This study provides a new way of predicting the storage coefficient of a coal mine underground reservoir.
Communication noise is classified as one of the pollutions for the current environment. Experimental techniques to measure tire-pavement noise generation from asphalt pavements in the laboratory have been limited. A series of experiments were conducted on six different asphalt mixtures to determine if Purdue University’s Tire-Pavement Test Apparatus (TPTA) could be used to overcome these limitations. The procedure produced samples with low tire-pavement noise; however, the air void contents of the samples were higher than designed. Despite these difficulties, the sample preparation technique and the TPTA testing protocol were shown to offer an effective approach for quick laboratory assessment of tire-pavement noise characteristics of hot mix asphalt pavements at a substantially reduced cost compared to field testing.
A review is given on a number of colloidal phenomena with special reference to their applicability to nanoparticles. Phenomena addressed include preparation, electric double layers and their characterization, electrokinetics, van der Waals and Lifshits forces, electric and steric particle interaction.
The paper describes the influence of the machining operation on a surface, which disturbs the projection of the tool profile in the form of its relative movements with respect to the object. The elements of the machine tool undergo constant wear during the machining process, it is therefore important to recognize the effects of their influence on the surface's irregularities. Amplitude-frequency analysis of lateral profiles has been used to evaluate and changes of turned lateral profiles. The results of simulation of radial and axial effects of the machine tool on surface and their spectral components were analyzed. Surfaces obtained in similar machining conditions on lathes operated in various time periods were analyzed spectrally. From the analysis of surface irregularity changes caused by disturbances in movements of the tool against the object, testifying the wear of main machine elements during its operation, the modulated, amplitude-frequency character of changes in surface irregularities of workpiece can be noticed.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of a multiphase Eulerian CFD model with respect to relations defining drag forces between phases. The mean relative error as well as standard deviation of experimental and computed values of pressure gradient and average liquid holdup were used as validation criteria of the model. Comparative basis for simulations was our own data-base obtained in experiments carried out in a TBR operating at a co-current downward gas and liquid flow. Estimated errors showed that the classical equations of Attou et al. (1999) defining the friction factors Fjk approximate experimental values of hydrodynamic parameters with the best agreement. Taking this into account one can recommend to apply chosen equations in the momentum balances of TBR.
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) in modeling of various machining processes has been the topic of immense interest among the researchers since several years. In this direction, the principle of fuzzy logic, a paradigm of AI technique, is effectively being utilized to predict various performance measures (responses) and control the parametric settings of those machining processes. This paper presents the application of fuzzy logic to model two non-traditional machining (NTM) processes, i.e. electrical discharge machining (EDM) and electrochemical machining (ECM) processes, while identifying the relationships present between the process parameters and the measured responses. Moreover, the interaction plots which are developed based on the past experimental observations depict the effects of changing values of different process parameters on the measured responses. The predicted response values derived from the developed models are observed to be in close agreement with those as investigated during the past experimental runs. The interaction plots also play significant roles in identifying the optimal parametric combinations so as to achieve the desired responses for the considered NTM processes.
This work outlines a unified multi-threaded, multi-scale High Performance Computing (HPC) approach for the direct numerical simulation of Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI) problems. The simulation algorithm relies on the extended Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (XSPH) method, which approaches the fluid flow in a Lagrangian framework consistent with the Lagrangian tracking of the solid phase. A general 3D rigid body dynamics and an Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) are implemented to model rigid and flexible multibody dynamics. The twoway coupling of the fluid and solid phases is supported through use of Boundary Condition Enforcing (BCE) markers that capture the fluid-solid coupling forces by enforcing a no-slip boundary condition. The solid-solid short range interaction, which has a crucial impact on the small-scale behavior of fluid-solid mixtures, is resolved via a lubrication force model. The collective system states are integrated in time using an explicit, multi-rate scheme. To alleviate the heavy computational load, the overall algorithm leverages parallel computing on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards. Performance and scaling analysis are provided for simulations scenarios involving one or multiple phases with up to tens of thousands of solid objects. The software implementation of the approach, called Chrono::Fluid, is part of the Chrono project and available as an open-source software.