The article presents research results of the strength parameters of HPC achieved in various research conditions. The research was carried out on substantially different samples, both as to the size as the slenderness ratio. Moreover, the assessment of the effect of speed of a load on strength parameters as well as other factors which in a significant way show the difference in the strength values was made. For comparison, the results were also applied to the relations known in ordinary concrete.
This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete). The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 , Eurocode 2  and the Model Code 2010  are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.
A novel dual mode logic (DML) model has a superior energy-performance compare to CMOS logic. The DML model has unique feature that allows switching between both modes of operation as per the real-time system requirements. The DML functions in two dissimilar modes (static and dynamic) of operation with its specific features, to selectively obtain either low-energy or high-performance. The sub-threshold region DML achieves minimum-energy. However, sub-threshold region consequence in performance is enormous. In this paper, the working of DML model in the moderate inversion region has been explored. The near-threshold region holds much of the energy saving of subthreshold designs, along with improved performance. Furthermore, robustness to supply voltage and sensitivity to the process temperature variations are presented. Monte carol analysis shows that the projected near-threshold region has minimum energy along with the moderate performance.
This paper presents the results of research on high performance concretes (HPC) modified by theaddition of polypropylene fibres (PP fibres). The scope of the research was the measurement of theresidual transport properties of heated and recooled concretes: gas permeability and surface waterabsorption. Seven types of concrete modified with fibrillated PP fibres were tested. Three lengths: 6,12 and 19 mm and three amounts of fibres: 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kg/m3 were used. The research programmewas designed to determine which length of fibres, used in which minimum amount, will, after thefibres melt, permit the development of a connected network and pathway for gases and liquids.
The new control method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) and Brushless DC Motor (BLDCM) is presented. Balance of power in three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor is based on conservation of energy law. Space vector theory determined by instantaneous value of phase quantities is applied in mathematical analysis. It makes possible to estimate instantaneous values of reactive energy and electromagnetic torque. The presented control method belongs to flux-oriented method; it synchronizes current vector in relation to stator flux vector. New structure of control system as well as block diagram containing all basic elements and operating modes of specific blocks are described. Simulation studies and experimental results for two kinds of motors: PMSM and BLDCM were performed based on the dSPACE development DS1103 system.
The paper presents the results of experimental investigations performed by the authors on the casting position factor. It was proved that at the height of reinforced concrete elements there are different bond conditions. Moreover, the bond depends on concrete mechanical properties, element height as well as concrete mix composition and consistency. The experiments also showed the advisability of determining the casting position factor separately for bars from normal concrete and those from high–performance concrete (HPC). The analysis of investigation results has shown that “good” bond conditions are a relative concept and depend on, among other things, element height. The higher the element the better the concrete to lower bars bond. Consequently, elements of considerable height (higher than 600 mm) demonstrate a bigger difference between concrete to upper bars bond and concrete to lower bars bond.
Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting many plants but Mentha viridis L., and Mentha piperita L., were low in number of infestation. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the resistance of M. viridis and M. piperita plants against T. urticae by studying the external shape and internal contents of those plants. For morphological studies, dried leaves were covered with gold utilizing an Edwards Scan coat six sputter-coater. For histological studies, arrangements of Soft Tissue technique were used. For phytochemical studies, the plants were cut, dried and then high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. While feeding the mites were collected from the area between oily glands, trichomes and respiratory stomata in both mint species. The most important leaf structures in aromatic plants are the oily glands found on the external part of the leaves (both upper and lower epidermis). The number of oil glands in M. viridis leaves was greater than in M. piperita; the trichomes on the epidermis of M. viridis were greater in number than in M. piperita; the spongy mesophyll in M. viridis was much thicker than in M. piperita. The essential oils in the leaves of both mint species contained 71 compounds representing 99.61% of the total oil constituents identified from M. viridis before infestation, and 90.95% after infestation, and about 99.65% from M. piperita before infestation, and 99.98% after infestation.
The telemetry data are essential in evaluating the performance of aircraft and diagnosing its failures. This work combines the oversampling technology with the run-length encoding compression algorithm with an error factor to further enhance the compression performance of telemetry data in a multichannel acquisition system. Compression of telemetry data is carried out with the use of FPGAs. In the experiments there are used pulse signals and vibration signals. The proposed method is compared with two existing methods. The experimental results indicate that the compression ratio, precision, and distortion degree of the telemetry data are improved significantly compared with those obtained by the existing methods. The implementation and measurement of the proposed telemetry data compression method show its effectiveness when used in a high-precision high-capacity multichannel acquisition system.
The ductility of High Performance Concrete (HPC) can develop both in tension and compression.This aspect is evidenced in the present paper by measuring the mechanical response of normalvibrated concrete (NC), self-compacting concrete (SC) and some HPCs cylindrical specimensunder uniaxial and triaxial compression. The post-peak behaviour of these specimens is definedby a non-dimensional function that relates the inelastic displacement and the relative stress duringsoftening. Both for NC and SC, the increase of the fracture toughness with the confinement stressis observed. Conversely, all the tested HPCs, even in absence of confinement, show practically thesame ductility measured in normal and self-compacting concretes with a confining pressure. Thus,the presence of HPC in compressed columns is itself sufficient to create a sort of active distributedconfinement.
In the recent years a tendency for design of increasingly slender structures with the use of high performance concrete has been observed. Moreover, the use of high performance concrete in tunnel structures, subject to high loads with possibility of extreme loads occurrence such as fire, has an increasing significance. Presented studies aimed at improving high performance concrete properties in high temperature conditions (close to fire conditions) by aeration process, and determining high temperature impact on the concretes features related to their durability. In this paper it has been proven that it is possible to obtain high performance concretes resistant to high temperatures, and additionally that modification of the concrete mix with aerating additive does not result in deterioration of concrete properties when subject to water impact in various form.
This paper presents the details of optimized mix design for normal strength and high performance concrete using particle packing method. A critical review of mix design methods have been carried out for normal strength concrete using American Concrete Institute (ACI) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) methods highlighting the similarities and differences towards attaining a particular design compressive strength. Mix design for M30 and M40 grades of concrete have been carried out using ACI, BIS and particle packing methods. Optimization of concrete mix has been carried out by means of particle packing method using EMMA software, which employs modified Anderson curve to adjust the main proportions. Compressive strength is evaluated for the adjusted proportions and it is observed that the mixes designed by particle packing method estimates compressive strength closer to design compressive strength. Further, particle packing method has been employed to optimize the ingredients of high performance concrete and experiments have been carried out to check the design adequacy of the desired concrete compressive strength.
Indirectly or externally fired gas turbines (IFGT or EFGT) are interesting technologies under development for small and medium scale combined heat and power (CHP) supplies in combination with micro gas turbine technologies. The emphasis is primarily on the utilization of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and the possibility of burning biomass even "dirty" fuel by employing a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) to avoid the combustion gases passing through the turbine. In this paper, finite time thermodynamics is employed in the performance analysis of a class of irreversible closed IFGT cycles coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. Based on the derived analytical formulae for the dimensionless power output and efficiency, the efficiency optimization is performed in two aspects. The first is to search the optimum heat conductance distribution corresponding to the efficiency optimization among the hot- and cold-side of the heat reservoirs and the high temperature heat exchangers for a fixed total heat exchanger inventory. The second is to search the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching corresponding to the maximum efficiency between the working fluid and the high-temperature heat reservoir for a fixed ratio of the thermal capacitance rates of the two heat reservoirs. The influences of some design parameters on the optimum heat conductance distribution, the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching and the maximum power output, which include the inlet temperature ratio of the two heat reservoirs, the efficiencies of the compressor and the gas turbine, and the total pressure recovery coefficient, are provided by numerical examples. The power plant configuration under optimized operation condition leads to a smaller size, including the compressor, turbine, two heat reservoirs and the HTHE.
The use of elastic bodies within a multibody simulation became more and more important within the last years. To include the elastic bodies, described as a finite element model in multibody simulations, the dimension of the system of ordinary differential equations must be reduced by projection. For this purpose, in this work, the modal reduction method, a component mode synthesis based method and a moment-matching method are used. Due to the always increasing size of the non-reduced systems, the calculation of the projection matrix leads to a large demand of computational resources and cannot be done on usual serial computers with available memory. In this paper, the model reduction software Morembs++ is presented using a parallelization concept based on the message passing interface to satisfy the need of memory and reduce the runtime of the model reduction process. Additionally, the behaviour of the Block-Krylov-Schur eigensolver, implemented in the Anasazi package of the Trilinos project, is analysed with regard to the choice of the size of the Krylov base, the blocksize and the number of blocks. Besides, an iterative solver is considered within the CMS-based method.
The paper deals with the properties and microstructure of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC), which was developed at Cracow University of Technology. The influence of three different curing conditions: water (W), steam (S) and autoclave (A) and also steel fibres content on selected properties of RPC was analyzed. The composite characterized by w/s ratio equal to 0.20 and silica fume to cement ratio 20%, depending on curing conditions and fibres content, obtained compressive strength was in the range from 200 to 315 MPa, while modulus of elasticity determined during compression was about 50 GPa. During three-point bending test load-deflection curves were registered. Base on aforementioned measurements following parameters were calculated: flexural strength, stress at limit of proportionality (LOP), stress at modulus of rapture (MOR), work of fracture (WF), and toughness indices I₅, I₁₀ and I₂₀. Both amount of steel fibres and curing conditions influence the deflection of RPC during bending.