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Abstract

This paper adopts a fractional calculus perspective to describe a non-linear electrical inductor. First, the electrical impedance spectroscopy technique is used for measuring the impedance of the device. Second, the experimental data is approximated by means of fractional-order models. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach represents the inductor using a limited number of parameters, while highlighting its most relevant characteristics.
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Abstract

The electrical impedance diagnostic methods and instrumentation developed at the Gdansk and Warsaw Universities of Technology are described. On the basis of knowledge of their features, several original approaches to the broad field of electrical impedance applications are discussed. Analysis of electrical field distribution after external excitation, including electrode impedance, is of primary importance for measurement accuracy and determining the properties of the structures tested. Firstly, the problem of electrical tissue properties is discussed. Particular cells are specified for in vitro and in vivo measurements and for impedance spectrometry. Of especial importance are the findings concerning the electrical properties of breast cancer, muscle anisotropy and the properties of heart tissue and flowing blood. The applications are both important and wide-ranging but, for the present, special attention has been focused on the evaluation of cardiosurgical interventions. Secondly, methods of instrument construction are presented which use an electrical change in conductance, such as impedance pletysmography and cardiography, for the examination of total systemic blood flow. A new method for the study of right pulmonary artery blood flow is also introduced. The basic applications cover examination of the mechanical activity of the heart and evaluation of many haemodynamic parameters related to this. Understanding the features that occur during blood flow is of major importance for the proper interpretation of measurement data. Thirdly, the development of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is traced for the purposes of determining the internal structure of organs within the broad field of 2-D and 3-D analysis and including modelling of the organs being tested, the development of reconstruction algorithms and the construction of hardware.
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Abstract

Verification of electrical safety in low-voltage power systems includes the measurement of earth fault loop impedance. This measurement is performed to verify the effectiveness of protection against indirect contact. The widespread classic methods and meters use a relatively high value of the measuring current (5#4;20) A, so that they are a source of nuisance tripping of residual current devices (RCDs). The meters dedicated to circuits with RCDs usually use an extremely low value of current (lower than 15 mA), which in many cases it is not acceptable in terms of the measurement accuracy. This paper presents a method of earth fault loop impedance measurement in 3-phase circuits, without nuisance tripping of RCDs – the concept of measurement, the meter structure and the experimental validation. The nuisance tripping is avoided in spite of the use of measuring current value many times higher than that of the rated residual current of RCDs. The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility of creating values of measuring current in a very wide range, what is very important with regard to accuracy of the measurement.
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Abstract

In this paper, the effect of the resolution of an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) on the accuracy of timedomain low-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy is examined. For the first time, we demonstrated that different wideband stimuli signals used for impedance spectroscopy have different sensitivities to the resolution of ADC used in impedance spectroscopy systems. We also proposed Ramp and Half-Gaussian signals as new wideband stimulating signals for EIS. The effect of ADC resolution was studied for Sinc, Gaussian, Half-Gaussian, and Ramp excitation signals using both simulation and experiments. We found that Ramp and Half-Gaussian signals have the best performance, especially at low frequencies. Based on the results, a wideband electrical impedance spectroscopy circuit was implemented with a high accuracy at frequencies bellow 10 Hz.
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Abstract

This paper presents a new, nondestructive method of testing brick wall dampness in wall structures. The setup was used to determine the moisture in a specially built laboratory model. Topological methods and the gradient technique are used to optimize the approach. A forward model of a wall was constructed to solve the inverse problem resulting in moisture buildup inside the wall.
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