This paper investigates attachment themes in the life history narratives of professional orchestral musicians and their relationship with music performance anxiety (MPA). Narrative accounts derived from open -ended in -depth interviews of ten professional musicians were analysed from an attachment perspective using content and thematic analysis. We hypothesized that the performance setting re -triggers unprocessed feelings related to early attachment experiences, especially when traumatic, and that defensive manoeuvres against their re -emergence into consciousness are activated. The interviews identified early relational trauma as a relevant etiological factor in the MPA -symptomatic of the musicians studied. A case is made for the addition of an attachment -informed life -course model rather than a purely symptomatic approach to understanding and treating severe MPA and other intra -personal psychodynamics of performing musicians.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the importance of social bonds for our ability to cope with traumatizing incidents. It is theorized that the dysfunctions related to trauma, such as alexithymia and dissociation can be linked to certain parental attitudes towards a child in an early developmental stages together with characteristics of the trauma itself, namely the identity of the perpetrator, understood as his or her social closeness to the victim. Participants: A total number of 60 participants, selected randomly from a population, psychiatric hospital patients as well as psychotherapy centers were tested using four questionnaires (TAS-26, PSD, CES, PBI). Results: The analyses revealed that high alexithymia levels are related to demanding attitude of the caregivers, whereas dissociation is more common in people who remember their parents as inconsequent and emotionally labile. Findings related to the connection between the identity of a perpetrator of the trauma and the sequelae showed that the dissociation levels were significantly higher in victims who suffered abuse from the hands of family member or friends than those who were harmed by unknown people.
Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo) is becoming to be popular in psychology, and by certain is even seen as a new biology for psychology (Hofer 2014). In particular, it is about the concept of extended inheritance This concept claims to be (neo-) Lamarckian. According to it inherited is everything that contributes to resemblance across generations and that strongly affects the fitness of the offspring—starting by nuclear genes, by genes expression, maternal care, ecological niche, cultural niche, language, etc. In this paper I analyse the potential of the concept of extended inheritance on the example of transgenerational transmission of attachment style and mentalizing capacity. I present the neuroendocrine mechanism of transmission. Then I show that a) DNA methylation is complementary to neuroendocrine mechanism, but it does not revolutionize the latter as it is claimed; b) the concept of extended inheritance confounds the three questions rightly separated by Neo-Darwinism: origin of variation, fate of variation and inheritance, c) although the motivation of Evo-Devo goes against the alleged genetic determinism of neodarwinism, the concept of transgeneration inheritance is determinist (although it is an epigeneetic determinism).
A new ichnogenus and ichnospecies (Solealites ovalis) of etching trace is preserved on the surfaces of clasts from the Savignone Conglomerate (Oligocene) in the Palaeogene Piemonte Basin in NW Italy. It is a shallow, oval depression with a central elevation, which was produced probably by limpet gastropods and served as their home scar, but other gastropods or even sea anemones are not excluded as the trace makers. The conglomerate is interpreted as a deposit of a fan delta, whose clasts have been bioeroded in an intertidal and shallow subtidal shore zone and redeposited to the deeper sea.
The following paper presents an idea of minimising the number of connections of individual piezoelectric transducers in a row-column multielement passive matrix system used for imaging of biological media structure by means of ultrasonic projection. It allows to achieve significant directivity with acceptable input impedance decrease. This concept was verified by designing a model of a passive ultrasonic matrix consisting of 16 elementary piezoceramic transducers, with electrode attachments optimised by means of electronic switches in rows and columns. Distributions of acoustic field generated by the constructed matrix model in water and results of the calculations conformed well.
The following work presents the idea of constructing a digitally controlled active piezoceramic transducer matrix for ultrasonic projection imaging of biological media in a similar way as in case of roentgenography (RTG). Multielement ultrasonic probes in the form of flat matrices of elementary piezoceramic transducers require attaching a large number of electrodes in order to activate the individual transducers. This paper presents the idea of minimising the number of transducer connections in an active row-column matrix system. This idea was verified by designing a model of a matrix consisting of 16 ultrasonic transducers with electrode attachments optimised by means of electronic switches in rows and columns and miniature transistor switches in the nodes of the matrix allowing to activate selected transducers. The results of measurements and simulations of parameters of the designed matrix show that it is suitable to be used in projection imaging of biological media as a sending probe. In to use the matrix as a universal sending or receiving probe, it was suggested to add further switches that would eliminate the undesired effect of crosstalks in case of switches used for toggling the transducers in the nodes of the matrix.