On one hand, Judgment and Decision Making (JDM) research reports a phenomena called the cross-modal effect, which shows that magnitude priming based on spatial attributes of a stimuli might influence numerical estimations. On the other hand, research directed at human cognition reports that processing of space and numbers may interfere. Despite different theoretical backgrounds, those two lines of research report similar results. Is it possible that the cross-modal anchoring and the interaction between space and number are just two manifestations of the same psychological effect, conceptualized within different paradigms? In Experiment 1 participants were asked to draw lines of different length and estimate numerosity of sets of dots presented for 100 ms. Based on current studies, magnitude priming is assimilated with subsequent numerical judgment. However, an unexpected contrast effect was observed in Experiment 1. Priming of “smallness” resulted in higher estimations of numerosity, while priming of “largeness” was associated with lower estimations. Short exposition time often leads to automatic attention processes, which could possibly account for the observed contrast effect. In Experiment 2 this assumption was tested, verifying potential differences between different exposition times (100 ms vs 300 ms). The same pattern of results was obtained. Findings of both experiments are discussed from the perspective of different anchoring paradigms and concepts related to space and number processing.
This paper discusses the adsorption of Direct Orange 26 azo dye on sunflower husk - an agricultural waste product. During the study, sorption kinetics and equilibrium as well as sorption capacity of the husk were investigated. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order equations, which indicated a chemical sorption mechanism. The sorption equilibrium was approximated with the two-parameter Freundlich and Langmuir equations and the three-parameter Redlich-Peterson equation. The main experiments were carried out in a laboratory adsorption column under different process conditions. Experimental data were interpreted with the Thomas model, based on the volumetric flow rate, initial composition of the feed solution and mass of the adsorbent. The results of modeling the adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and adsorption dynamics were evaluated statistically.