Research suggests that placebo can reduce the misinformation effect. We aimed to examine for the first time whether placebo administered in the guise of caffeine can reduce the misinformation effect. One hundred and twenty -three healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups in a 2 Placebo (Present, Not Present) × 2 Narrative (Misleading, Correct) study design. Participants from placebo groups drank 100 ml of placebo solution. They were told that it was water mixed with caffeine which could positively influence their memory. After three minutes, they watched a short movie clip as an original event and read a narrative with misleading details or correct details as a postevent information; they then completed a 22 -item, two -alternative forced -choice questionnaire. The results reveal that the misinformation effect occurred. Although participants in the placebo with misinformation group scored better than participants who did not drink placebo and read the narrative containing misleading details, the difference was not statistically significant. Thus, it is concluded that placebo might not be enough to reduce the misinformation effect when it is administered in the guise of caffeine.
This paper presents the results of a study on the Polish version of the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale (GCBS), which was designed to measure individual differences in conspiracist thinking (Brotherton, French, & Pickering; 2013). The Polish version of the scale had excellent internal consistency as measured by Cronbach alpha: .93. The Polish version also had excellent test-retest stability. To check the validity of the questionnaire, various tools were used to measure the characteristics that can be correlated with conspiracist thinking. As a result, it was found that conspiracist thinking is positively correlated with the external locus of control, the results obtained in the Scale of Belief in Zero-Sum Game and the results of the MMPI-2 Paranoia scale. It was also found that patients with paranoid personality disorder and paranoid schizophrenia had higher results on the adapted scale than healthy subjects. In sum, the Polish version of GCBS had satisfactory psychometric properties, which makes it useful for measuring conspiracist thinking.
In general, it is ben eficial and adaptive to have high self-esteem; however, contingent self-esteem depending on approval is not so advantageous. This article presents research on a Polish version of the Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (CSES), which measures contingent self-esteem. The CSES was administered on a total of 1,199 participants; a range of other instruments were also used to establish the validity of the CSES. The CSES proved to have acceptable internal consistency and validity and factor analyses revealed that it contains four factors: vulnerability to negative opinions, dependence on physical attractiveness, dependence on opinions, and dependence on self-standards. Contingent self-esteem was positively correlated with neuroticism, agreeableness, ruminating, anxiety, and maladaptive perfectionism; it was negatively correlated with general self-esteem and self-efficacy. Mediational analyses confirmed the hypothesis that low general self-esteem causes high rumination about oneself, which in turn is related to high contingent self-esteem.