Recent investigations of micro engines have documented the problem of low efficiency of steady compression devices . As a solution, the application of unsteady processes has been proposed [1, 6, 17-20]. Closer investigations have shown the applicability of pure unsteady devices for gas compression, but it is also shown that they are practically not applicable for torque generation . A new concept of the wave engine has to be developed. This paper presents such a new concept and numerical investigation of the hybrid wave engine. A hybrid wave engine combines in a single machine components realizing unsteady compression, steady expansion, and mixed unsteady and steady scavenging due to the centrifugal force action. MEMS technology requires or prefers a flat geometry. Therefore, the use of a radial type of wave compression device for air compression is proposed. A numerical, two-dimensional complete model of this device was built, and several numerical simulations of engine operations were performed. The numerical model includes the simplified model of the combustion chamber closing the flow loop between the high-pressure compressed air port and the high-pressure hot exhaust gas port. The model represents the complete flow scheme of the hybrid wave engine. A special type of turbine in radial configuration with serial flow layout is used for torque generation.
This paper presents results of numerical investigation on a controllable airfoil flow separation phenomena practically applied in Formula One racing by a device called the F-duct. Separation is forced by air jets from slots located at different positions on the profile of the dual element wing and is intended to reduce aerodynamic drag. Slot position and the air jet velocity are the main parameters controlling the flow separation. The flow structure, surface pressure distribution, and the generated downwards lift and drag forces were investigated in this study. Two different flow separation structures have been recognised. Typically, wing stall is correlated with an increase in aerodynamic drag force. However, in the case of the finite wing with low aspect ratio, the induced drag is dominant and is proportional to the downforce. Therefore, flow separation on the wing increases the profile drag while simultaneously reducing the induced drag, resulting in a decrease in the total aerodynamic drag.
This paper presents a three-dimensional model of an airbag located outside of a small city car at the front bumper, which is intended to protect the vehicle against the effects of road traffic collisions. Results of numerical simulations of airbag operation in case of collision with two types of obstacles are presented: a flat, vertical wall and a circular pillar with a diameter of 200 mm. The paper presents the physical model, which is the subject of simulation, along with its mathematical description and the numerical calculation scheme used.
This paper comprises description of the turbo engine and evaluation of its analytical model. The analytical model was created to establish a benchmark for further evaluation of a wave rotor combustor (at constant volume). The wave rotor combustor concept was presented and discussed. Advantages of combustion at constant volume were described as well as the basic turbo engine updates required to reflect pulse combustor application. The calculation results for analytical model of a basic engine, and that equipped with pulse combustor are included in this paper. The paper describes the required changes in the engine structure and construction and the estimated thermodynamic improvements. Axial-type pulse multi-chamber combustion unit increasing the pressure and temperature of gases requires a special additional turbine utilizing additional energy and forming the interface between the standard compressor-turbine unit. Performance calculations done for an existing GTD-350 engine showed that constant-volume combustion process is valuable.
The motion of a ring pack on a thin film covering a cylinder liner has been analysed. In contrast to the previous papers , , which considered a primary hydrodynamic phenomena (including mixed lubrication), in the present paper an additional degree of freedom of a ring i.e. a twist motion is also taken into account. Equations describing the twist of rings are presented and used in simulation. The twist phenomena of a single ring have been analysed in the past . In this paper, the twist effects of separate rings forming a ring pack are considered. In the pack configuration, the twist of the upstream ring strongly influences the operation of the downstream ring. The phenomenon commonly treated as secondary effect seems to be influencing the ring motion strongly. Differences between results obtained applying and neglecting ring twist motion are analysed and discussed.
This paper presents the results of numerical analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of a sports car equipped with movable aerodynamic elements. The effects of size, shape, position, angle of inclination of the moving flaps on the aerodynamic downforce and aerodynamic drag forces acting on the vehicle were investigated. The calculations were performed with the help of the ANSYS-Fluent CFD software. The transient flow of incompressible fluid around the car body with moving flaps, with modeled turbulence (model Spalart-Allmaras or SAS), was simulated. The paper presents examples of effective flap configuration, and the example of configuration which does not generate aerodynamic downforce. One compares the change in the forces generated at different angles of flap opening, pressure distribution, and visualization of streamlines around the body. There are shown the physical reasons for the observed abnormal characteristics of some flap configurations. The results of calculations are presented in the form of pressure contours, pathlines, and force changes in the function of the angle of flap rotation. There is also presented estimated practical suitability of particular flap configurations for controlling the high-speed car stability and performance.
The paper describes the behavior of the liquid in a container that moves with a constant speed along a track consisting of three arcs. Such a complicated track shape generates complex form of inertia forces acting on the liquid and generates the sloshing effect. The behavior of the tank container vehicle is affected by the time-dependent inertia forces associated with the transient sloshing motion of the liquid in the non-inertial frame. These internal excitations, acting on a tank construction, can cause a loss of stability of the vehicle. For that reason, the authors analyze the dynamic loads acting on the walls of the tank truck container. The variation of the position of the liquid cargo gravity center, that depends on the filling level of the container, is also analyzed. The simulations were performed according to the varying fill level, which was 20%, 50% and 80% of a liquid in the whole tank volume. The simulations were carried out for a one-compartment container. Another aim of this study was the investigation of the influence of container division (tank with one, two and three compartments) on behavior of the liquid. These simulations considered only the half-filled container which was treated as a dangerous configuration prohibited by the law regulations for one-compartment tank. The results of simulation are presented in the form of visualization of temporary liquid free surface shape, variation of forces and moments, as well as frequency analysis. The results of simulation were analyzed, and some general conclusion were derived, providing the material for future investigation and modifications of the law regulations.
Small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines can be used as a source of electricity in rural and urban environments. According to the authors’ knowledge, there are no validated simplified aerodynamic models of these wind turbines, therefore the use of more advanced techniques, such as for example the computational methods for fluid dynamics is justified. The paper contains performance analysis of the small-scale vertical-axis wind turbine with a large solidity. The averaged velocity field and the averaged static pressure distribution around the rotor have been also analyzed. All numerical results presented in this paper are obtained using the SST k-ω turbulence model. Computed power coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental results. A small change in the tip speed ratio significantly affects the velocity field. Obtained velocity fields can be further used as a base for simplified aerodynamic methods.
A high performance and light-weight wound composite material wheel has been developed and is intended to be used for many purposes. One of these applications is marine current turbine (MCT). Traditionally, major problems influencing the design and operation of MCTs are fatigue, cavitation and corrosion due to the sea water. Considering these factors, implementation of composite materials, especially Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix, in MCTs is explained in this paper. This novel design pattern of composite material marine current turbine (CMMCT) shows many advantages compared to conventional turbines. This paper investigated several factors which should be considered during this novel turbine design process such as the composite material selection, filament winding of composite wheel and turbine's structural and cavitation analysis. The power coefficient of CMMCT by using CFD is also obtained and the experimental facilities for testing CMMCT in a water towing tank are briefly described.
A novel type of an axial, piston-driven high pressure hydraulic pump with variable capacity marks a significant improvement in the area of the hydraulic machinery design. Total discharge from hydrostatic forces eliminates a need for a servomechanism, thus simplifying operation, reducing weight and introducing the possibility of the pump displacement control by computer. PWK-type pumps, invented in the Gdansk University of Technology, offer high efficiency for pressure levels up to 55 MPa, ability to work self sucking even at high speed. However, the heart of the new invention, the commutation unit, creates harmful pressure peaks. Those peaks can be mitigated by the introduction of a compensation chamber with elastic walls. Owing to the dynamic character of events taking place in the pump, a need for computer simulation arouse in order to understand phenomena leading to the occurrence of pressure peaks and choose compensation chamber parameters accordingly. A CFD package alone would not be sufficient to reliably represent the interaction between the compensation chamber wall and the working fluid. This paper presents Fluid Structure Interaction approach comparing 3 different models: 2 simplified models of the pump and a full pump model.