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Abstract

Ensuring the security of power generation systems is a pillar of the proper functioning of each state. Energy security is fundamental to ensure both economic growth and social welfare. As energy storage has not developed in an efficient extent, covering the current and prospective power demand is a major challenge for transmission system operators. Moreover, the activities that are to be taken should be technically and economically justified and need to meet the requirements of environmental protection. Cooperation between neighboring countries in the field of electricity exchange is among the activities undertaken to ensure the safety of the power generation systems. The integration of electricity markets is one of the key challenges of the European Union’s energy policy. The European Commission issued a directive on interconnection, according to which the capacity of interconnections should total 10% of installed capacity until 2020 (and 15% until 2030) in each Member State. The main objective of this study is to assess the changes in electricity imports and exports in 2003–2018 and to investigate the current level of cross-border exchanges between Poland and the neighboring countries. This paper also answers the question of whether Poland will fulfil the obligations set by the European Commission. In addition, the paper presents the risks and the challenges related to fulfilling the mentioned commitments. The results of the study indicate that the development and modernization of network infrastructure in the field of cross-border exchange are necessary because, in the context of the forecasted increase in electricity demand, Polish generation units will not be able to meet the demand.
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Abstract

Increasing the share of energy production from renewable sources (RES) plays a key role in the sustainable and more competitive development of the energy sector. Among the renewable energy sources, the greatest increase can be observed in the case of solar and wind power generation. It should be noted that RES are an increasingly important elements of the power systems and that their share in energy production will continue to rise. On the other hand the development of variable generation sources (wind and solar energy) poses a serious challenge for power systems as operators of unconventional power plants are unable to provide information about the forecasted production level and the energy generated in a given period is sometimes higher than the demand for energy in all of the power systems. Therefore, with the development of RES, a considerable amount of the generated energy is wasted. The solution is energy storage, which makes it possible to improve the management of power systems. The objective of this article is to present the concept of electricity storage in the form of the chemical energy of hydrogen (Power to Gas) in order to improve the functioning of the power system in Poland. The expected growth in the installed capacity of wind power plants will result in more periods in which excess energy will be produced. In order to avoid wasting large amounts of energy, the introduction of storage systems is necessary. An analysis of the development of wind power plants demonstrates that the Power to Gas concept can be developed in Poland, as indicated by the estimated installed capacity and the potential amount of energy to be generated. In view of the above, the excess electricity will be available for storage in the form of chemical energy of hydrogen, which
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Abstract

The paper investigates the supply structure of the capacity market in Poland in the coming years. The results of the capacity auctions conducted in 2018 are analyzed for this purpose. Three auctions were held at that time. The products traded in the capacity market are capacity obligations for the following years: 2021, 2022 and 2023. The auctions were organized in accordance with (i) he Act of December 8, 2017 on the Capacity Market and the (ii) Capacity Market Regulations published by the Polish Power Grid. The source of data used in this study is the official information of the President of the Energy Regulatory Office on the final results of the main auctions for 2021–2023 delivery periods. The list of the capacity suppliers who won capacity auctions contains the type of capacity market units, the volume of capacity obligations, the duration of capacity agreements and the business name of the capacity suppliers. The conducted analysis indicates that the auction for 2021 was won mainly by existing units (45.81%) and refurbishing units (33.51%). In subsequent years, the share of existing generating units is significantly higher and amounts to 91.67% for 2022 and 84.54% for 2023. The results of the study carried out in this paper also show that one energy company, being the owner of power generating daughter companies, has a very high share in these capacity auctions. The PGE Capital Group contracted 51.95% for 2021, 69.92% for 2022 and 64.44% for 2023 of the total capacity obligation. The volume amounts to over 70% of their total installed capacity.
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Abstract

The Polish power generation system is based mostly on coal-fired power plants. Therefore, the coal mining sector is strongly sensitive to changes in the energy sector, of which decarbonization is the crucial one. The EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS) requires power generating companies to purchase European Emission Allowances (EUAs), whose prices have recently soared. They have a direct impact on the cost efficiency of hard coal-fired power generation, hence influence the consumption of hard coal on the power sector. In this context, the objective of this paper is to estimate the hard coal consumption in various regions of Poland under selected forecasts of the EUA price. To investigate this question, two models are employed:  - the PolPower_LR model that simulates the Polish power generation system,  - the FSM _LR model that optimizes hard coal supplies. Three scenarios differentiated by the EUA price are designed for this study. In the first one, the average EUA price from 2014–2017 is assumed. In the second and third, the EUA prices are assumed accordingly to the NPS and the SDS scenario of the World Energy Outlook. In this study we consider only existing, modernized, under construction and announced coal-fired power generation units. The results of the study indicate that regardless of the scenario, a drop in hard coal consumption by power generation units is observed in the entire period of analysis. However, the dynamics of these changes differ. The results of this analysis prove that the volume of hard coal consumption may differ by even 136 million Mg (in total) depending on the EUA prices development scenario. The highest cumulated volume of hard coal consumption is observed in the Opolski, Radomski and Sosnowiecki region, regardless of the considered scenario.
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