Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2020 | vol. 65 | No 3 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, glass frit was coated uniformly on the surface of Al particles instead of adding glass frit to Al powder by simple mixing to form a nano-layer. The influence of the glass-frit coating on the formation of the back-surface field and electrical characteristics of the resulting Al electrode were investigated. Microstructural observations indicated that the glass components were uniformly distributed and the back-surface field layer thickness was more uniform compared to the simply mixed sample. In addition, the sheet resistance was ˂10 mΩ/□, much lower than the 23 mΩ/□ of the simply mixed Al electrode.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hyeondeok Jeong
Sung-Soo Ryu
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, we demonstrate a facile and cost-effective way to synthesize Nd-Fe-B of various shapes such as powders, rods and fibers using electrospinning, heat-treatment and washing procedures. Initially Nd-Fe-B fibers were fabricated using electrospinning. The as-spun Nd-Fe-B fibers had diameters ranging 489 to 630 nm depending on the PVP concentration in reaction solutions. The different morphologies of the Nd2Fe14B magnetic materials were related to the difference in thickness of the as-spun fibers. The relationships between the as-spun fiber thickness, the final morphology, and magnetic properties were briefly elucidated. The intrinsic coercivity of Nd2Fe14B changed with the change in morphology from powder (3908 Oe) to fiber (4622 Oe). This work demonstrates the effect of the Nd-Fe-B magnetic properties with morphology and can be extended to the experimental design of other magnetic materials.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Nu Si A Eom
Muhammad Aneeq Haq
Jimin Lee
Kyoung-Mook Lim
Taek Soo Kim
Yong-Ho Choa
Bum Sung Kim
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

With the recent advancement in technology for titanium metal powder injection molding and additive manufacturing, high yield and good flowability powder production is needed. In this study, titanium powder was produced through vacuum induction melting gas atomization with a cold crucible, which can yield various alloy compositions without the need for material pretreatment. The gas behavior in the injection section was simulated according to the orifice protrusion length for effective powder production, and powder was prepared based on the simulation results. The gas distribution changes with the orifice protrusion length, which changes the location of the recirculation zone and production yield of the powder. The produced powders had a spherical morphology, and the content of impurities (N, O) changed with the injected-gas purity.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Dae-Kyeom Kim
Young Il Kim
Hwaseon Lee
Young Do Kim
Dongju Lee
Bin Lee
Taek-Soo Kim
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

We investigated the austenite stability and mechanical properties in FeMnNiC alloy fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The addition of Mn, Ni, and C, which are known austenite stabilizing elements, increases its stability to a stable phase existing above 910°C in pure iron; as a result, austenitic microstructure can be observed at room temperature, depending on the amounts of Mn, Ni, and C added. Depending on austenite stability and the volume fraction of austenite at a given temperature, strain-induced martensite transformation during plastic deformation may occur. Both stability and the volume fraction of austenite can be controlled by several factors, including chemical composition, grain size, dislocation density, and so on. The present study investigated the effect of carbon addition on austenite stability in FeMnNi alloys containing different Mn and Ni contents. Microstructural features and mechanical properties were analyzed with regard to austenite stability.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seunggyu Choi
Junhyub Jeon
Namhyuk Seo
Young Hoon Moon
In-Jin Shon
Seok-Jae Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, a non-equiatomic high entropy alloy was fabricated using the spark plasma sintering method, and its microstructural features and mechanical properties were investigated. The chemical composition of FeMnCoCr was determined by using the entropy calculation related to the design of high entropy alloys. A bulk sample with the same composition was also prepared using the conventional metallurgical processes of casting and hot rolling. The microstructures of the samples fabricated by these different processes were compared by microscope observation, and a quantitative phase analysis was carried out using FE-SEM. Hardness measurement was used to evaluate mechanical properties. Particular attention was paid to microstructural changes due to heat treatment, which was analyzed by considering how austenite stability is affected by grain refinement.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Namhyuk Seo
Junhyub Jeon
Seunggyu Choi
Young Hoon Moon
In-Jin Shon
Seok-Jae Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Ice formed on radome surfaces causes communication disruption due to radio-frequency interference (RFI), which reveals the importance of de-icing systems for radomes. As a radome de-icing application, in this work, carbon nanotube (CNT) thin films were fabricated using a spray-coating method, and influence of process parameters on RF transmittance and electrothermal properties was investigated. With the increase of spraying time, sheet resistance of the fabricated film decreases, which results in a decrease of the RF transmittance and improvement of the heating performance. Also, the de-icing capability of the fabricated CNT film was evaluated at –20oC, and efficient removal of ice under cold conditions was demonstrated.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jun Hyuk Jung
Jiwon Hong
Youngryeul Kim
Seok-Min Yong
Jinwoo Park
Seung Jun Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Mg-1.6Gd binary alloy was subjected to uniaxial warm rolling at a unidirectional and cross-sectional with a reduction ratio of 95% in order to observe the relationship between its microstructural changes to the degradation behavior. The warm rolling was performed at a temperature range of its recrystallization temperature, which were 400°C and 560°C, and a feed rate of 10 mm/min. Degradation behaviors of Mg-1.6Gd binary alloy was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization and hydrogen evolution test in modified Kokubo’s SBF solution at temperature of 37 ± 1ºC. The lowest corrosion rate of 0.126 mm/year derived from potentiodynamic polarization test was showed by unidirectional-rolled specimen at temperature of 560 °C. Hydrogen evolution test results showed the lowest hydrogen gas formed during 24 hours of immersion was found on unidirectional-rolled specimen at temperature of 560°C with a rate of 0.268 cc/cm2/hours. While cross rolled specimens showed a high corrosion and hydrogen evolution rate of 20 mm/year and 0.28 cc/cm2/hours.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ahmad Zakiyuddin
Arya Abietta Irawan
Oknovia Susanti
Sri Harjanto
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In the past few years, overhead copper transmission lines have been replaced by lightweight aluminum transmission lines to minimize the cost and prevent the sagging of heavier copper transmission lines. High strength aluminum alloys are used as the core of the overhead transmission lines because of the low strength of the conductor line. However, alloying copper with aluminum causes a reduction in electrical conductivity due to the solid solution of each component. Therefore, in this study, the authors attempt to study the effect of various Al/Cu ratios (9:1, 7:3, 5:5) to obtain a high strength Al-Cu alloy without a significant loss in its conductivity through powder metallurgy. Low-temperature extrusion of Al/Cu powder was done at 350ºC to minimize the alloying reactions. The as-extruded microstructure was analyzed and various phases (Cu9Al4, CuAl2) were determined. The tensile strength and electrical conductivity of different mixing ratios of Al and Cu powders were studied. The results suggest that the tensile strength of samples is improved considerably while the conductivity falls slightly but lies within the limits of applications.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Deokhyun Han
Geon-Hong Kim
Jaesung Kim
Byungmin Ahn
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, Fe-40wt% TiB2 nanocomposite powders were fabricated by two different methods: (1) conventional powder metallurgical process by simple high-energy ball-milling of Fe and TiB2 elemental powders (ex-situ method) and (2) high-energy ball-milling of the powder mixture of (FeB+TiH2) followed by reaction synthesis at high temperature (in-situ method). The ex-situ powder was prepared by planetary ball-milling at 700 rpm for 2 h under an Ar-gas atmosphere. The in-situ powder was prepared under the same milling condition and heat-treated at 900oC for 2 h under flowing argon gas in a tube furnace to form TiB2 particulates through a reaction between FeB and Ti. Both Fe-TiB2 composite powder compacts were sintered by a spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. Sintering was performed at 1150℃ for the ex-situ powder compact and at 1080℃ for the in-situ powder for 10 minutes under 50 MPa of sintering pressure and 0.1 Pa vacuum for both processes. The heating rate was 50o/min to reach the sintering temperature. Results from analysis of shrinkage and microstructural observation showed that the in-situ composite powder compacts had a homogeneous and fine microstructure compared to the ex-situ preparation, even though the sintered densities were almost the same (99.6 and 99.8% relative density, respectively).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sun-Woo Bae
Xuan-Khoa Huynh
Ji-Soon Kim
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effect of Fe addition (0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 wt.%) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of as-cast and as-extruded Al-RE alloys. As the Fe element increased by 0 and 0.75wt.%, the phase fraction increased to 5.05, 5.76, 7.14 and 7.38 %. The increased intermetallic compound increased the driving force for recrystallization and grain refinement. The electrical conductivity of Al-1.0 wt.%RE alloy with Fe addition decreased to 60.29, 60.15, 59.58 and 59.13 %IACS. With an increase in the Fe content from 0 to 0.75 wt.% the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the alloy increased from 74.3 to 77.5 MPa. As the mechanical properties increase compared to the reduction of the electrical conductivity due to Fe element addition, it is considered to be suitable for fields requiring high electrical conductivity and strength.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hyo-Sang Yoo
Yong-Ho Kim
Hyeon-Taek Son
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) were conventionally prepared by a modified injection casting method, which had the drawback of a low fabrication yield rate of approximately 60% because of the formation of many metallic fuel scraps, such as melt residue and unsuitable fuel slug butts. Moreover, the metallic fuel scraps were classified as a radioactive waste and stored in temporary storage without recycling. It is necessary to develop a recycling process technology for scrap wastes in order to reduce the radioactive wastes of the fuel scraps and improve the fabrication yield of the fuel slugs. In this study, the additive recycling process of the metallic fuel scraps was introduced to re-fabricate the U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE fuel slugs. The U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE fuel scraps were cleaned on the surface impurity layers with a mechanical treatment that used an electric brush under an Ar atmosphere. The U-10wt.%Zr-5wt.%RE fuel slugs were soundly re-fabricated and examined to evaluate the feasibility of the additive process compared with the metallic fuel slugs that used pure metals.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ki-Hwan Kim
Seung-Uk Mun
Seong-Jun Ha
Seoung-Woo Kuk
Jeong-Yong Park
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Tin dioxide (SnO2) is an n-type semiconductor and has useful characteristics of high transmittance, excellent electrical properties, and chemical stability. Accordingly, it is widely used in a variety of fields, such as a gas sensor, photocatalyst, optoelectronics, and solar cell. In this study, SnO2 films are deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 180°C using Tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and water. A couple of 5.9, 7.4 and 10.1nm-thick SnO2 films are grown on SiO2/Si substrate and then each film is annealed at 400°C in oxygen atmosphere. Current transport of SnO2 films are analyzed by measuring current – voltage characteristics from room temperature to 150°C. It is concluded that electrical property of SnO2 film is concurrently affected by its semiconducting nature and oxidative adsorption on the surface.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seong Yu Yoon
Byung Joon Choi
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This research describes effects of Si addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-Cr based alloys prepared manufactured using gas atomization and SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) processes. The Al-Cr-Si bulks with high Cr and Si content were produced successfully using SPS sintering process without crack and obtained fully dense specimens close to nearly 100% T. D. (Theoretical Density). Microstructure of the as-atomized Al-Cr-Si alloys with high contents of Cr and Si was composed multi-phases with hard and thermally stable such as Al13Cr4Si4, AlCrSi, Al8Cr5 and Cr3Si intermetallic compounds. The average hardness values were 703 Hv for S5, 698 Hv for S10 and 824 Hv for S20 alloy. Enhancement of hardness value was resulted from the formation of the multi-intermetallic compound with hard and thermally stable and fine microstructure by the addition of high Cr and Si using rapid solidification and SPS process.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Yong-Ho Kim
Ik-Hyun Oh
Hyo-Sang Yoo
Hyun-Kuk Park
Jung-Han Lee
Hyeon-Taek Son
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

CaO sorbent dissolved in chloride molten salts was investigated to identify its CO2 capture property. Various molten salt systems with different melting points (CaCl2, LiCl, LiCl-CaCl2, and LiCl-KCl) were used to control the operation temperature from 450 to 850ºC in order to determine the effect of the operation temperature on the chemical reaction between CaO and CO2. The CaO sorbent showed the best performance at 550ºC in the LiCl-CaCl2 molten salt (conversion ratio of 85.25%). This temperature is lower than typical operation temperature of the solid-state CaO sorbent (~700ºC).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sung-Wook Kim
Min Ku Jeon
Kirak Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

A paste containing Cu(II) formate rods was prepared, and characteristics of sinter bonding at 250°C under a pressure of 10 MPa were investigated to accomplish a high-speed die attachment for wide-bandgap power chips on Cu finish in air. Synthesis of the plate-type Cu formate particles from CuO was accomplished through a wet reaction for 180 min. Cu, formed in situ in the bondline by pyrolysis of the formate during heating for the attachment, was sufficiently active to lead high-speed sintering within a carbon dioxide-hydrogen atmosphere derived from the pyrolysis, and the oxide layer on the Cu finish was reduced by the hydrogen. As a result, sinter bonding for 10 min formed a robust bonding with a shear strength approaching 27 MPa.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Kyeong Hwan Jo
Jong-Hyun Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Dynamic charge carrier transport behavior in the zirconium (Zr) oxide was investigated based on the frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage (C-V) and temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The Zr oxide was formed on the ZIRLO and newly developed zirconium-based alloy (NDZ) by corrosion in the PWR-simulated loop at 360°C. The corrosion test for 90 days showed that the NDZ exhibits better corrosion resistance than ZIRLO alloy. Based on the C-V measurement, dielectric constant values for the Zr oxide was estimated to be 11.28 and 11.52 for the ZIRLO and NDZ. The capacitance difference between low and high frequency was larger in the ZIRLO than in the NDZ, which was attributed to more mobile electrical charge carriers in the oxide layer on the ZIRLO alloy. The current through the oxide layers on the ZIRLO increased more drastically with increasing temperature than on the NDZ, which indicating that more charge trap sites exist in the ZIRLO than in NDZ. Based on the dynamic charge carrier transport behavior, it was concluded that the electrical charge carrier transport within the oxide layers was closely related with the corrosion behavior of the Zr alloys.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Il-Kyu Park
Sang-Seok Lee
Yong Kyoon Mok
Chan-Woo Jeon
Hyun-Gil Kim
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Mortar feedstock is extruded to form bead and it is selectively placed line by line in the material extrusion additive manufacturing. With respects to part building process healthiness, load-supporting ability of overlaid beads is emphasized as buildability. Buildability is primarily dependent on thixotropic properties of feedstock and vertical overlapping schedule. In the present study, water-to-binder (w/b) ratio was chosen as material aspect to assess buildability. Uneven bead shape evolution and premature failure were highlighted owing to low yield stress of high w/b ratio feedstock. Feedstock with optimum w/b ratio showed good buildability even at the interval time of 19 sec.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jinsoo Park
Hojae Lee
Hanshin Choi
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Microstructure and wear property of AlSi10Mg alloy manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) were investigated. Also, the effect of post heat treatment on the mechanical and wear properties was examined. Two kinds of heat treatments (direct aging (DA) and T6) were separately conducted to SLM AlSi10Mg alloy. As-built alloy had a cellular structure formed inside the molten pool. Eutectic Si was also observed at the cellular boundary in as-built alloy. After DA heat treatment, the cellular structure still remained, and a large amount of nano-size Si particles were newly formed inside the cell structure. Both molten pool and cellular structure disappeared, and the size of Si increased in T6 alloy. The values of Vickers hardness measured as 139.4 HV (DA alloy), 128.0 HV (As-built alloy) and 85.1 HV (T6 alloy), respectively. However, concerning to wear property, T6 alloy showed better wear resistance than other alloys. The correlation between microstructure and wear mechanism of SLM AlSi10Mg alloy was also discussed.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Tae-Hyun Park
Min-Seok Baek
Yongho Sohn
Kee-Ahn Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

An open-cell Ni-Mo-Cr foam was newly manufactured using electrostatic powder spraying process and its room-temperature compressive properties were investigated in this study. For manufacturing Ni-Mo-Cr foam, Ni-Mo-Cr powders were sprayed on the polyurethane pre-form by electrostatic powder spraying process. And then, Ni-Mo-Cr powder sprayed pre-forms were sintered at 1200℃, 1250℃, and 1300℃, respectively. The relative densities of Ni-Mo-Cr foams were measured at 4 ~ 5%. Room temperature compressive curves of ESP Ni-Mo-Cr foams represented the typical compressive 3-stages (elastic, plateau, densification) of open-cell metallic foam. As a result of observation of deformed specimen, the fracture mode found to be changed from brittle to ductile as sintering temperature increased. Based on these findings, correlations between structural characteristics, microstructure, and compressive deformation behavior were also discussed.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Tae-Hoon Kang
Kyu-Sik Kim
Min-Jeong Lee
Jung-Yeul Yun
Kee-Ahn Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The microstructure and macroscopic properties of WC-50Ni+stellite 1(Co-Cr-W, ST1) coating layer fabricated by HVOF spray have been investigated. WC-50Ni powder and ST1 powders were mixed in the ratio of 1:0 and 5:5 wt.%, respectively. Argon heat treatment (Ar) and high-frequency heat treatment (H.F.) were conducted on the coating materials. WC was decomposed in the Ar heat treatment specimen, but decomposition of WC was not observed in the H.F. heat treatment specimen. Hardness was measured for as-sprayed WC-50Ni (821.5Hv) and as-sprayed WC-50Ni+ST1 (668.1 Hv). Hardness of Ar heat treatment specimen was reduced by about 14~18% than that of the as-sprayed coating layers. However, when the H.F. heat treatment was performed, the hardness inversely increased by about 6~10% than the as-sprayed coating layer. Based on these results, the method to improve the mechanical property of HVOF sprayed WC-50Ni+ST1 coating layer has also been also discussed.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Gi-Su Ham
Dong-Yeol Wi
Sun-Hong Park
Kee-Ahn Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

A cold roll bonding process is applied to fabricate an AA6061/AA5052/AA6061/AA5052 multi-layer sheet. Two AA6061 and two AA5052 sheets with 2mm thickness are stacked alternately to each other, and reduced to a thickness of 2 mm by multi-pass cold rolling. The roll bonded multi-layer sheet is then hardened by natural aging (T4) and artificial aging (T6) treatments. The as roll-bonded sheet shows a typical deformation structure that the grains are elongated to the rolling direction. However, after T4 and T6 aging treatments, it has a recrystallization structure consisting of the coarse equiaxed grains in both AA5052 and AA6061 sheets. The as rolled material shows a lamella structure in which AA5052 and AA6061 sheets are stacked alternately to each other, having higher hardness in AA5052 than in AA6061. However, T4 and T6 aging treated materials show a different lamella structure in which the hardness of the AA6061 layers is higher than that of the AA5052 layers. The strengths of the T4 and T6 age-treated specimens are found to increase by 1.3 and 1.5 times respectively, compared to that of the starting material.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Seong-Hee Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this study, decomposition and densification behavior of PbAlNbO3-PbZrTiO3 (PAN-PZT) ceramics were characterized for powder injection molding process. Thermal gravity analysis and in-situ dilatometer experiment were carried out to construct master curve. Based on master curve model approach, one-combined master debinding curve (MDC) and master sintering curve (MSC) were constructed for piezoelectric PAN-PZT ceramics. Derived curves matched well with the experimental data. Process optimization and material development will be conducted based on characterization of master curve parameters.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jun Sae Han
Jae Man Park
Seong Jin Park
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Due to air pollution, global warming and energy shortage demands new clean energy conversion technologies. The conversion of industrial waste heat into useful electricity using thermoelectric (TE) technology is a promising method in recent decades. Still, its applications are limited by the low efficiency of TE materials in the operating range between 400-600 K. In this work, we have fabricated Cu0.005Bi0.5Sb1.495Te3 powder using a single step gas atomization process followed by spark plasma sintering at different temperatures (623, 673, 723, and 773 K), and their thermoelectric properties were investigated. The variation of sintering temperature showed a significant impact on the grain size. The Seebeck coefficient values at room temperature increased significantly from 127 μVK to 151 μV/K with increasing sintering temperature from 623 K to 723 K due to decreased carrier concentration. The maximum ZT values for the four samples were similar in the range between 1.15 to 1.18 at 450 K, which suggest these materials could be used for power generation in the mid-temperature range (400-600 K).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Chul-Hee Lee
Peyala Dharmaiah
Jun-Woo Song
Kwang-Yong Jeong
Soon-Jik Hong
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is an attractive photocatalyst, however, its practical photocatalytic applications are still faced with huge challenges. The aim of this research is to identify the correlation between synthetic conditions and properties of the g-C3N4 and derive an optimum synthesis condition for improving photocatalytic activities of the g-C3N4. In this study, novel and versatile g-C3N4 nanosheets were synthesized by the simple thermal pyrolysis of urea. In the synthesis process, the pyrolysis temperature and the heating rate, which can have the most significant influence on the structures and properties of g-C3N4, were set as variables, and the effects were systematically investigated. When synthesized at a relatively high temperature, the amount of material being synthesized is reduced, however it has been found to represent optical properties suitable for highly efficient photocatalyst by the increase in the thickness and defects formed in the g-C3N4 nanosheets. The photocatalytic degradation experiment of MB dyes indicated that the highest degradation of 95.2% after the reaction for 120 min was achieved on the g-C3N4 nanosheets synthesized at 650oC.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jeong Hyun Kim
Myeongjun Ji
Cheol-Hui Ryu
Young-In Lee
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The sintering behavior of p-type bismuth telluride powder is investigated by means of dilatometric analysis. The alloy powders, prepared by ball milling of melt-spun ribbons, exhibit refined and flake shape. Differential thermal analysis reveals that the endothermic peak at about 280oC corresponds to the melting of bismuth, and peaks existing between 410oC and 510oC are presumably due to the oxidation and crystallization of the powder. The shrinkage behavior of ball-milled powders was strongly dependent of heating rate by the thermal effect exerted on specimens. In the case of 2oC/min, the peak temperature for the densification is measured at 406oC, while the peak temperature at a heating rate of 20oC/min is approximately 443oC. The relative density of specimen pressureless-sintered at 500oC exhibited relatively low value, and thus further study is required in order to increase the density of sintered body.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ju-Yeon Han
Jong Min Byun
Young-In Lee
Byung Joon Choi
Hogyoung Kim
Sung-Tag Oh
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper presents the results of tests concerning the effect of the extrusion process in the complex strain state on the microstructure and properties of one of magnesium alloy with aluminium, zinc and manganese, designated AZ61. Due to its specific gravity, it is increasingly being used in the automotive and aerospace industries to reduce the weight of structural elements. As a result of plastic deformation processes, rods with a diameter of 8, 6 and 4 mm were obtained from AZ61 magnesium alloy. The microstructure analysis was performed using light and electron microscopy (STEM) techniques in the initial state and after plastic deformation. Microstructure studies were supplemented with a quantitative analysis using the Metilo program. A number of stereological parameters were determined: average diameter of grain, shape factor. A static tensile test was carried out at 250ºC and 300ºC, at deformation rates of 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 m·s–1. Better plastic properties after deformation using KoBo method were obtained than with conventional extrusion.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

I. Bednarczyk
D. Kuc
A. Tomaszewska
M. Tkocz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The effect of replacing iron with transition metals (M = Mn, Cr, Co) on the microstructure of mechanically alloyed Al65Cu20Fe15 quasicrystalline powder was examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy methods. Powders of various compositions were milled in a high-energy planetary ball mill up to 30 hours at a rotation speed 350 rpm using WC milling media. The amount of the fourth additions was constant in all powders and Fe atoms were replaced with Mn, Cr or Co in a 1:1 ratio, while the content of the Al and Cu was selected in two ways: they remained the same as in the initial ternary Al65Cu20Fe15 alloy or changed to obtain e/a ratio = 1.75 (optimal for icosahedral quasicrystalline phase). Quasicrystalline phase formed in the quaternary Al65Cu20Fe7.5M7.5 powders, whereas in the second group of compositions only crystalline phases were identified.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Mitka
D. Kalita
A. Góral
L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this paper, the kinetics of the platinum(IV) chloride complex ions reduction reaction was studied. It was shown that the mechanism exhibits autocatalytic character. The presence of metallic platinum in the system significantly increases the reaction rate. The influence of the initial concentration of precursor, reductant, ionic strength, initial concentration of the chloride ions as well as the temperature on the process rate was investigated. The activation energy was determined and is equal to 93.57 kJ/mol. Moreover, the obtained metallic phase was analyzed, and it was observed that it has a micrometric size.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Wojnicki
P. Żabiński
Edit Csapó
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Nitrogen-doped DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings were produced on 316L nitrided austenitic steel in direct current and pulsed glow discharge conditions. The chemical composition, surface topography, hardness and corrosion resistance of the obtained carbon coatings were examined. The coatings varied in surface morphology, roughness and hardness. Direct current glow discharge made it possible to produce a coating characterized by lower hardness, greater thickness and higher nitrogen content. The coating featured improved corrosion resistance and adhesion compared to coatings produced in the pulsed process.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

T. Borowski
M. Spychalski
K. Rożniatowski
K. Kulikowski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Vacoflux-49 (Fe-49% Co-49% V-2%) is used in torque, sonar and gyroscopic sensors applications due to excellent magnetic properties (high saturation magnetisation, low coercivity and high Curie temperature). In this study, the shape, size and characteristics of different thermal zones and the microstructural evolution during electron beam melting and welding of Vacoflux-49 material are studied. The experimental studies on melting have been carried out with under-focussed, focussed and over focussed electron beam. In the case of the under-focussed and over-focused beam, no evaporated zone is found. In the case of focussed beam, a shallow conical-shaped evaporated zone, a choked funnel-shaped fusion zone, a conical shaped partially melted zone and the heat-affected zone are observed. The solidified melt pool in terms of shape, size and microstructure of different zones are investigated for the focussed beam. The grains in the fusion zone appear wavy having crest and trough. The fusion zone microstructure also shows the formation of solidification rings. From the electron beam welding experiments performed for joining two Vacoflux-49 plates (continuous welding), it is found that the weldment shape is similar to the spot melting and re-solidification experiments. The grain growth in different zones in the welding sample is also examined.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Pawan Kumar
Anshul Yadav
Arvind Kumar
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The main objective of the present work was to determine the effect of powder composition on microstructure and properties of iron-base materials used as matrices in diamond impregnated tools. The Fe-Cu-Ni powders premixed and ball-milled for 30 hours, were used for the experiments. The influence of manufacturing process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of produced sinters was investigated. Sintering was done by hot-pressing technique in graphite mould. The powders were consolidated to a virtually pore-free condition during 3 minutes hold at 35MPa and 900°C. Investigations of the sintered materials included: density, hardness, static tensile test and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Microstructural and fractographic observations were also made with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The obtained results indicate that the sintered parts have a high density, close to the theoretical value, good plasticity, relatively high hardness and yield strength, and are characterized by a coarse-grained microstructure.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

J. Borowiecka-Jamrozek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Paper presents results of laser welding of dissimilar joints. Flange pipe joints of austenitic TP347-HFG and low carbon S235JR steels were performed. Possibility of laser girth welding of dissimilar joints was presented. Welding of dissimilar materials are complex phenomena, chemical composition of chromium and nickel base austenitic steel with carbon amount of 0.07%, comparing to low carbon steel with trace amount of chromium, nickel and with 0.17% of carbon are different, and affect on welding result. Amount of carbon and chromium have great effect on steel phase transformation and crystallization process, which affect on material hardenability and strength characteristic. In conventional GMA welding methods solidification process of different metals is controlled by use of a selected filler material, for creating buffer zone. The main advantages of laser welding over other methods is process without an additional material, nevertheless some application may require its use. Laser welding with additional material combines advantages of both methods. To carry out weld with high strength characteristic, without welding defects, selecting chemical composition of filler wire are required. Welding parameters was obtained using numerical simulation based on Finite Element Method (FEM). Joint properties was investigated using hardness test. Metallographic analysis of obtained weld was carried out using optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

H. Danielewski
A. Skrzypczyk
K. Mulczyk
A. Zrak
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Divorced eutectoid growth of cementite in AISI 1080 steel is investigated as a function of cooling rate for incomplete austenitization-based heat treatment. Furthermore, a fundamental mathematical relationship is established through analytical treatment that correlates divorced eutectoid growth with effective cooling rate and degree of undercooling in view of bulk diffusion controlled growth model. As the cooling rate increases, the divorced eutectoid growth of cementite is gradually ceased. The result predicted by the analytical model closely matches with the experimental result (%Deviation ≤ 7).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Prasenjit Biswas
Joydeep Maity
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In the present paper results of the studies devoted to computer simulations of dielectric response of electroceramics in a frequency domain as well as analysis of the experimental data are given. As an object of investigations BiNbO4-based microwave ceramics was taken. Simulations of the hypothetical impedance response of the ceramic system were performed under assumption of the brick-layer model. A strategy for analysis and modelling of the impedance data for microwave electroceramics was discussed. On the base of the discussed strategy modelling of the dielectric response of BiNbO4 ceramics was performed with the electric equivalent circuit method. The Voigt’s and Maxwell’s circuits were taken as electric models. Parameters of the electric components of the circuits were determined and related to parameters of the ceramic object under study. It was found that fitting quality was good and changed within the range χ2 = 6.78 × 10–4 – 6.77 × 10–5 depending on the model.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

D. Czekaj
A. Lisińska-Czekaj
B. Garbarz-Glos
W. Bąk
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper presents the technology and basic properties of three compositions of lead-free ceramics: (i) (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3, (ii) (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3+0.5%mol Nd2O3 and (iii) (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3+0.5%mol Pr2O3. Powders of the designed compositions based on KNLN were obtained with the classic ceramic technology, as a result of solid phase synthesis, from a mixture of simple oxides and carbonates. The synthesis of ceramic powders was carried out at Ts = 900°C for ts = 4 h, while compaction by free sintering at Tsint = 1100°C for tsint = 2 h.

XRD studies have shown that doping with praseodymium and neodymium promotes the formation of the tetragonal phase in the base composition (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 at lower temperatures. On the other hand, microstructural tests have shown that the admixture of neodymium and praseodymium improves the sinterability of ceramic samples during the technological process; however, the ceramic samples still exhibit high porosity.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

D. Bochenek
K. Osińska
M. Mankiewicz
P. Niemiec
G. Dercz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

La0,7Ca0,3MnO3 polycrystalline were synthesized from La2O3, CaO and MnO2 powder mixture using a solid state reaction technique. The compound powders were obtained through the free sintering method at different temperatures and sintering times in order to study the influence of technological conditions on Ca doped La manganites. The most important physical features as structure, microstructure and morphology were described after X-ray diffraction investigation. Photographs of the specimen fractures were taken with SEM (scanning electron microscope) and they revealed high porosity of the tested material and great tendency for its grains to create agglomerates. Influence of doping and technological conditions on lattice parameters were studied by means of Rietvield analysis. The XRD measurements reveal that La0,7Ca0,3MnO3 has orthorhombic symmetry with Pnma space group.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Bara
J. Dzik
K. Feliksik
L. Kozielski
B. Wodecka-Duś
T. Goryczka
A. Zarycka
M. Adamczyk-Habrajska
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The article shows the effect of the increased carbon content on the microstructure and properties of two-phase titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Alloys with different carbon content (0.2 and 0.5 wt.%) were produced in vacuum induction furnace with cooper crucible. It was shown that the addition of carbon at the level of 0.2 wt.% increases hardness and strength properties, affects structural stability, results in grain refinement as well as improves creep and oxidation resistance. However, it has a negative effect on plastic deformation. Increasing the carbon content to the 0.5 wt.% causes the further improvement in the creep and oxidation resistance and microstructure refinement of the tested alloys, resulting also in decrease such properties as plasticity, hot deformability and in case of the susceptibility to cold plastic deformation to unacceptable level.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

A. Szkliniarz
W. Szkliniarz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The paper presents the possibility of using FSW technology for joining elements of a landing gear beam of the M28 aircraft. The FSW process was performed on a 4-axis numerical machine under industrial conditions. However, before welding was carried out under industrial conditions, preliminary experimental tests were carried out under laboratory conditions. Preliminary research was carried out for AA2024-T3 aluminum sheets of 1 mm and 3 mm in thickness, joined in a lap configuration. The influence of technological and geometric parameters of the process on the quality and strength of the weld was examined. Sheet metal arrangement was analyzed. Tests were carried out for two configurations. The first of which with 1 mm sheet on the top and 3 mm sheet on the bottom and in reverse order. It has been shown that setting a thicker plate on the top gives a 40% better strength. The microhardness and microstructure of the weld were tested. During the laboratory tests, low-cycle fatigue tests of the FSW lap joint were performed. It has been shown that the FSW method can be an alternative to the riveting process in the production of aviation structure elements.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

P. Myśliwiec
R.E. Śliwa
R. Ostrowski
M. Bujny
M. Zwolak
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

In this work, we developed the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite and it’s composite with yttrium iron cobaltite (mass ratio of 1:1) cathodes as a thin layer on Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 electrolyte. Two kinds of electrode pastes were prepared, with and without 6 mm polystyrene beads as an additional pore former. The performance of cathode materials was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a function of electrode morphology, oxygen partial pressure, potential, and temperature. The polarization resistance of the more porous electrodes was lower than those electrodes prepared without additional pore former in the whole potential range at 800°C, slightly lower at 700°C and 600°C. The addition of yttrium iron cobaltite decreased the performance of both types of cathodes. The lower polarization resistance of porous cathodes is due to the facilitated gas diffusion through their structure.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Mosiałek
M. Zimowska
D. Kharitonov
M. Górski
M. Krzan
A. Komenda
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

This paper presents a study on anodizing titanium alloy Ti-6Al-7Nb in electrolyte of dilute sulfuric acid. The effects of the parameters – voltage, anodizing time, and electrode distance on the anodic film properties have been investigated. The anodic layers are found to become more compact with the increase of the applied voltage in the electrolytic cell. The microstructure, chemical element distribution and mechanical properties, i.e. microroughness and microhardness of the anodic coatings obtained at different operating conditions have been evaluated.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Deyan Veselinov
Hristo Skulev
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

High temperature behavior of three compacted graphite iron (CGI) alloys on polycrystalline alumina substrates (99.7%, poro­sity <3%) were examined by the sessile drop method combined with classical contact heating procedure in flowing Ar. High-speed high-resolution CCD camera was used for continuous recording of the CGI/Al2O3 couples during melting alloy, heating to and holding the couples at the test temperature of 1450°C for 15 min and their subsequent cooling. The comparative studies were made with conventional CGI (in wt.%: 3.70 C, 2.30 Si, 0.44 Mn, 0.054 P, 0.017 Mg, 0.015 S) and two alloys additionally containing the same amounts of 0.25 Mo, 0.1 V, 0.045 Sn and 0.032 Sb with different concentrations of Mg + Cu additions, i.e. 0.01Mg + 0.33Cu and 0.02Mg + 0.83Cu. All three CGI alloys demonstrated non-wetting behavior on the Al2O3 substrates while the contact angle values slightly decreased with increase of the Mg + Cu content in the alloy, i.e. 131° (unalloyed CGI), 130° (0.01Mg + 0.33Cu) and 125° (0.02Mg + 0.83Cu). Structural characterization of solidified couples by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed: 1) heterogeneous nucleation of discontinuous graphite layer at the drop-side interfaces and on the surface of the drops; 2) reactively formed Mg-rich oxide layer at the substrate-side interface; 3) the formation of satellite droplets on the surface of the drops during their solidification; 4) degeneration of initially compacted graphite to lamellar graphite after remelting and subsequent solidification of the drops, particularly in their surface layer.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

N. Sobczak
M. Bacior
P. Turalska
G. Bruzda
M. Homa
J.J. Sobczak

Editorial office

EDITORIAL BOARD

Editor-in-Chief:

Paweł Zięba, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Editors:

Krzysztof Fitzner, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Bogusław Major, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Przemysław Fima, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

Piotr Bała, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Leszek Blacha, Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Zbigniew Bojar, Military University of Technology, Poland

Eduardo Cesari, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain

Kyu Rhee Chang, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Korea

Jan Dusza, Institute of Materials Research, SAS, Slovakia

Władysław Gąsior, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Zbigniew Gronostajski, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

Edward Guzik, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Peter D. Hodgson, Deakin University, Australia

Herbert Ipser, University of Vienna, Austria

George Kaptay, Research Institute on Nanotechnology, Hungary

Alexandre Kodentsov, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Rafał Kozubski, Jagiellonian University, Poland

Aleš Kroupa, Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, Czech Republic

Piotr Kula, Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Jan Kusiński, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Roman Kuziak, Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Poland

Jüergen Lackner, Laser Center Leoben, Joanneum Research, Austria

Kee Ahn Lee, Inha University, Korea

Marcin Leonowicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Jerzy Lis, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Leszek B. Magalas, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Graeme E. Murch, University of Newcastle, Australia

Alberto Passerone, Institute of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Italy

Henryk Paul, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Maciej Pietrzyk, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Eugen Rabkin, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel

Amir Shirzadi, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jerzy Sobczak, Foundry Research Institute, Poland

Boris B. Straumal, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Pekka Taskinen, Aalto University, Finland

Stefan Zaefferer, Max-Planck-Institut, Germany

Ehrenfried Zschech, Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing, Germany

Contact

Editorial address:


Instytut Mechaniki Górotworu PAN

ul. Reymonta 27

30-059 Kraków, Poland

Tel. +48 (12) 6376200 w. 58


e-mail : archiwum4@wp.pl, amm@imim.pl

 

Instructions for authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science. Papers with focus on synthesis, processing and properties of metal materials, including thermodynamic and physical properties, phase relations, and their relation to microstructure of materials are of particular interest.

Submissions to Archives of Metallurgy and Materials should clearly present aspects of novelty of findings, originality of approach etc. If modeling is presented it should be logically connected to experimental evidence. Submissions which just report the results without in depth analysis and discussion will not be published.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

Authors of review type manuscripts are requested to send such manuscripts to Editor-in-Chief for preliminary evaluation. Only manuscripts approved by the Editor-in-Chief can be submitted to the journal for further processing. This does not guarantee acceptance for publication since all

manuscripts are subject to regular review procedure.

When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:

1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.

1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000)

1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.

1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word

Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.

1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.

1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:

Author(s) with first names in full.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).

Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.

Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.

All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.

Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation

2.1. Formulae, equations and units

Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).

Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.

2.4. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket). Use of DOI is strongly encouraged.

Samples:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015).

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015).

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8] https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/crystallographic-databases, accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process

All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing.

Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary.

Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 14 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days

4.3 Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Open Access policy

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.). This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more